The chapter solutions of chemistry subject from class 12 CBSE syllabus plays an essential role in understanding physical chemistry. The topics that we will be dealing with in this chapter are types of solutions, solution’s strength, and determining molecular weight with colligative properties. Here we will also be solving exercises given in the NCERT class 12th chapter 2.
Topics Covered in this Chapter (content table)
Chemical kinetics is a branch of chemistry that studies the rates of chemical processes at different temperatures, pressures, and concentrations. The term kinetics refers to the study of how molecular properties are experimentally or theoretically changed for understanding the processes involved. It includes studying the changes in molecular properties with alterations in conditions. NCERT solutions of chemical kinetics explain various reactions' physical, chemical, and mathematical principles. In this article, we have given some chemical kinetics class 12 NCERT solutions, which will help the students clear their basic chemistry concepts and solve the questions with ease.
Different reactions are encountered daily, such as combustion, fermentation, photosynthesis, and respiration. This chapter will explore primarily how heat energy can release when chemicals react spontaneously. Chapter 4, chemistry class 12, highlights the concept of Chemical Kinetics. Further, it outlines what happens, why it happens, and what affects the reaction rates so that you can understand, better acquire, and apply a basic understanding of chemicals being converted into other substances by the addition or removal of matter.
The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
The middle layer of the periodic table includes d block elements. Inner d-orbits of Group 3 to 13 are filled gradually. The f block elements are found outside and at the bottom of the periodic table. The 5f and 4f orbitals are filled gradually in these elements. The filling of 3d, 4d, and 5d orbitals differentiates the three series of transition elements. They have a high boiling point as well as a high melting point.
The electronic configuration, occurrence, and general features of transition elements will be discussed first in this article, with a focus on trends in the properties of the first row (3d) transition metals, as well as the synthesis and properties of several key compounds. Following that, the general properties of the inner transition metals' electrical configurations, oxidation states, and chemical reactivity will be considered. Given below are the metallic characteristics exhibited by transition elements:
High tensile strength
The importance of coordination compounds cannot be emphasised. It is necessary to keep in mind that without chlorophyll (Mg - complex) in plants and haemoglobin (Fe - complex) in human blood, life is inconceivable. The study of these compounds will help us better understand chemical bonding and the physical features of coordination molecules.
Haloalkanes and haloarenes can be generally classified as mono, di, or poly halogen (tri-, tetra-, etc.) compounds, depending on the number of halogen atoms (1, 2, or more) in their structures. The replacement of hydrogen atoms in an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon by halogen atoms results in the formation of alkyl halide or haloalkane and aryl halide or haloarene, respectively.
As the halogen atoms are more electronegative than carbon, the carbon-halogen bond of haloalkanes is polarised. In this, the halogen atom bears a partial negative charge, and the carbon atom bears a partial positive charge. Haloalkanes are formed by the free radical halogenation of alkanes, with the addition of halogen acids to alkenes, and replacement of –OH group of alcohols with halogens using thionyl chloride, phosphorus halides, or halogen acids. Haloarenes are formed by electrophilic substitution to arenes. Fluorides and iodides are mainly formed by using the halogen exchange method.
The boiling points of organohalogen compounds, organic compounds that contain chlorine, bromine, fluorine atoms, are comparatively higher than the corresponding hydrocarbons because of their powerful dipole-dipole and van-der-Waals forces of attraction. Haloalkanes and haloarenes are slightly soluble in water but completely soluble in organic solvents. Various halogen-containing organic compounds occur in nature. Some of them have wide applications in the medical or industrial industry and even in our everyday lives.
In the haloalkanes and haloarenes NCERT chapter, you will learn about the important preparation methods, properties, applications, and effects of these organohalogen compounds.
The notes for the Class 12 Chemistry chapter “Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers” are crucial for the exam. This chapter covers the preparation, characteristics, and reactions of alcohols, phenols, and ethers. Students will learn about some of the most fundamental topics in organic chemistry, as well as their industrial applications.
Alcohol is generated when hydroxyl group atoms connect with saturated carbon atoms. When alcohol is dehydrated, the result is ether. This chapter covers how these compounds are related. Furthermore, there are three alcohol forms—monohydric, dihydric, and trihydric—classified by their hydroxyl groups. Based on their structural forms, alcohols are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary.
You will learn about alcohols, phenols, and ethers in this chapter from your CBSE Chemistry textbook.
NCERT Solutions for Amines will help students comprehend the basics of amines a lot easier. The NCERT solutions will help them retain the complex structural formulas and chemical reactions of amines for a long period of time. Any doubts about the chapter can be quickly resolved by consulting these solutions.
To prepare efficiently for their examinations, students should routinely go through the NCERT Solutions developed by the subject specialists of MSVgo. Aside from offering textbook solutions, MSVgo also offers high-quality 15,000+ videos, 10,000+ question banks, quizzes, and more to better prepare our students.
You can find worksheets, exercises, illustrative problems, and tasks to help you excel in the study of Amines.
Polymers are everywhere; if you take a look around, you can find dozens of materials made out of just polymers. The term “polymer” is often used synonymously with plastic or resin, but polymers are more diverse than that.
Polymers are also present in rubber, polyester, glass, wood, nylon, proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), and more. Polymer-containing objects that you have most likely come in contact with are your everyday plastic bottles, the rubber tyres on vehicles, the rubber component of your earphones, clothing, toys, building materials, and gadgets.
Table of contents
What is a polymer?
Importance of a polymer
Desirable properties of polymers
Classification of polymers
Polymerisation mode-based classification
Molecular forces-based classification
Vulcanisation of rubber
Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers
Topics covered in this chapter: Chemistry in Everyday Life NCERT.