Often referred to as materials chemistry, solid-state chemistry deals with solid-phase materials' structure, properties, and synthesis. In the solid-state class 12 NCERT solutions, the term 'solid-state' refers to crystalline and non-molecular materials. Several fundamental principles are required to comprehend these class 12 NCERT solutions topics.
Continue reading to learn more about the essential principles and applications of Solid State Chemistry in Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1.
The physical and chemical properties of a solid, in NCERT solutions class 12 chemistry chapter 1 are vital for many reasons. For example, a substance's melting point is necessary to determine its density.
Despite these differences, solids are used to create a variety of objects. They are often used in multiple industries and products and are highly versatile. They are also an excellent tool for research. This article on class 12 chemistry chapter 1 NCERT solutions will describe the different types of solids and how they differ.
Solid State Chemistry is the science of synthesis and properties of solids. This branch of chemistry focuses on studying solids by exploring their composition and chemical bonding. Its goal is to discover random physical properties of interest to engineers and scientists. This science had little impact on engineering in the past, and it was separated from other disciplines. However, in class 12 chemistry chapter 1 NCERT solutions, the discipline has become increasingly important in many fields, including metallurgy and the study of semiconductors, glasses, and polymers.
There are two fundamental states of matter: Amorphous and Crystalline. Each of these states has distinct properties that vary significantly from one another.
The many kinds and subcategories of solid states are covered in detail here.
Crystalline Solid State
The crystalline solid-state is a class of materials that exhibit anisotropy, or changes in physical properties, depending on the direction of the force. In the class 12 chemistry chapter 1 NCERT solutions, it is classified into three types: ionic, covalent, and monatomic.
The latter is characterised by high conductivity. They are insulators with high melting points.
Quartz, sodium chloride, diamonds, and so forth are examples of such materials.
Characteristic Properties of Crystalline solids
Crystalline solids - Types
Metallic components make up their composition.
Metallic solids include metals such as iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), gold (Au), and others.
Ions are the primary components. Coulombic forces hold them in place, organised in a logical sequence of anions and cations.
For instance, NaCl, MgO, and so on.
Molecular solids are made up of molecules with weak Van der Waals forces.
The molecules that make up molecular solids are the particles that make up the solid. In class 12 chemistry chapter 1 NCERT solutions, the same is subdivided into three categories:
Non-Polar Molecular Solids
In terms of properties, non-polar molecular solids are substances that have a weak dispersion force between their molecules. These solids tend to be soft, and their molecules are held together by powerless London and dispersion forces. While they usually exist in a liquid or gaseous state, some notable exceptions are also. One of the most significant is graphite, a type of molecule with a free fourth electron.
For instance, F2, H2, and so on.
Polar Molecular Solids
Polar molecular compounds have low melting points and good electrical and thermal conductivity.
For instance, HCl, NH3, and others.
Hydrogen-Bonded Molecular solids
Hydrogen-Bonded Molecular Solids are crystalline compounds based on a network of interconnected atoms. These compounds have high melting and boiling points and are generally poor conductors. One exception to this rule is graphite, a solid at room temperature, but a gas when sublimated. A hydrocarbon molecule has an average of four hydrogen bonds, while a polymer has one or two.
For instance, H2O, H2F, and so on.
A ‘covalent solid’ is a molecule with a large number of covalent bonds. In these materials, atoms are held together by their covalent bonds, forming a giant molecule. It is impossible to break a covalent solid without breaking many of its other chemical bonds. In this way, as per the class 12 chemistry chapter 1 NCERT solutions, it is different from a ‘solid’ in the traditional sense. It can't melt, either.
For instance, SiO2, CH4, and so on are all elements.
Amorphous Solid State
An amorphous Solid State is a substance that lacks the standard shape of atoms or molecules. Amorphous solids (from the Greek amorphous-no form) are composed of particles arranged in an irregular pattern. The configurations of the specific particles are for quick order. That is, periodic organisation and regular order apply only over short distances. It is a supercooled liquid with an infinite volume and a wide melting temperature range.
Although the two types of particles are identical, their physical properties are very different. In solid state chemistry class 12 NCERT solutions, their main distinguishing feature is their incompressibility and lack of long-range regularity. Amorphous solids are highly dense and have a wide melting point range.
For instance, Polyethylene terephthalate, polymers, crystal glass, and so on.
One common misconception about solid-state class 12 NCERT chemistry is that it is similar to solid-state physics, but this is not the case. Make sure you have these class 12 chemistry chapter 1 NCERT solutions handy. These class 12 chemistry chapter 1 NCERT solutions will help you better understand what was covered in class.
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Q: What causes solids to be rigid?
A: The answer lies in the intermolecular forces between constituent particles. These forces keep the atoms in place in a solid, preventing them from moving beyond their fixed positions. This lack of mobility is the main reason why material is rigid. Moreover, it helps to explain the behaviour of objects in everyday life. The following information will help you understand the mechanism of solids.
Q: What are the two fundamental differences between solids and liquids?
A: Solids and liquids have two fundamental differences.
Q: What are the main differences between amorphous and crystalline solids?
A: The main differences are as follows:
Q: Is copper a crystalline or amorphous solid?
A: It is a Crystalline solid.
Q: Why is glass classified as a supercooled liquid?
A: Glass is a supercooled liquid because it is an amorphous solid. Slow-moving materials, such as amorphous solids, are becoming more common. A liquid form is formed since the particles in solids do not move, but a solid crystalline structure is not included in this case. The supercooled liquid is the term used to describe these phenomena.
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