The notes for the Class 12 Chemistry chapter “Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers” are crucial for the exam. This chapter covers the preparation, characteristics, and reactions of alcohols, phenols, and ethers. Students will learn about some of the most fundamental topics in organic chemistry, as well as their industrial applications.
Alcohol is generated when hydroxyl group atoms connect with saturated carbon atoms. When alcohol is dehydrated, the result is ether. This chapter covers how these compounds are related. Furthermore, there are three alcohol forms—monohydric, dihydric, and trihydric—classified by their hydroxyl groups. Based on their structural forms, alcohols are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary.
You will learn about alcohols, phenols, and ethers in this chapter from your CBSE Chemistry textbook.
Alcohols are organic compounds with a hydroxyl group (-OH) linked to one of their carbon atoms. Enols are compounds with a hydroxyl group linked to a double bond’s unsaturated carbon atom. Alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and benzyl are all examples of saturated carbons. If a hydroxyl group is connected to a benzene ring, these chemicals are called phenols.
Monohydric alcohols (containing one -OH group), dihydric alcohols (containing two -OH groups), and trihydric alcohols (containing three -OH groups) are the three types of alcohols.
Alcohol is used industrially as well as in everyday life. Ethanol, for example, is a commonly used spirit for polishing wooden furniture. Sugar, cotton, and paper are all made up of group-containing compounds. Phenols are found in a wide range of essential polymers, such as Bakelite, as well as medications like aspirin. Ethers are commonly used as solvents and anaesthetics.
A sigma (bond generated by the overlap of an sp hybridised orbital of carbon with an sp hybridised orbital of oxygen) attaches the group’s oxygen to carbon in alcohols. The structures of methanol, phenol, and methoxymethane are depicted in the diagram below.
Alcohol: An aliphatic hydrocarbon’s hydrogen is replaced by the group -OH (hydroxyl).
Phenol: The -OH (hydroxyl) group replaces the hydrogen in an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Ether: The group -OR/-OAr replaces the hydrogen in a hydrocarbon (alkoxy or aryloxy).