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Amines are an important class of organic compounds. They can be defined as ammonia derivatives, which are an important class of organic compounds and are obtained by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia molecules. These notes will help you revise and understand key concepts of amines.
As mentioned above, amines are derived from ammonia by replacing one, two, or all three hydrogen atoms with alkyl and aryl groups.
Like ammonia, nitrogen atoms of amines are also trivalent, one of them carrying an unshared pair of electrons. Thus, the nitrogen orbitals in amines are sp3 hybridised and are pyramidal. Every single one of these sp3 hybridised orbitals of nitrogen overlap with orbitals of either nitrogen or hydrogen, depending on the composition of the amines present at that moment.
The fourth orbital of nitrogen in all the amines consists of an unshared pair of electrons; due to this occurrence, the angle of C-N-E where E is C or H becomes less than 109.5 and is equivalent to 108.
Amines can primarily be classified into 3 types depending upon the number of hydrogens that have been replaced by alkyl or aryl groups; they are explained below-
Certain physical properties of amines are as follows-
They mostly occur among proteins, vitamins, alkaloids, and hormones. Some examples of this are ephedrine and adrenaline. Some synthetic examples are polymers, drugs, and dyestuff; novocain is also another synthetic compound that has amino in it. Other than that, quaternary ammonium salts are also used as surfactants, and Diazonium salts also play an important role in preparing certain aromatic compounds, including dyes.
Amines can be prepared using the following way-
NO2 ———-> NH2
NO2 ———-> NH2
Or Fe+ HCl
In this case, reduction with iron scrap and hydrochloric acid is preferred due to FeCI2 getting hydrolysed to release hydrochloric acid during the reaction.
The above discussion must have helped the readers to understand more about the concept of amines. However, to learn more about the nomenclature, basics, and chemical reactions related to amines, head to MSVgo app, which is a video library that explains concepts with examples along with explanatory visualizations and animations, which makes the concept easier to understand and also fun to learn and also enables learning the core of the concept which helps the students, their parents and teachers to learn and teach better.