Characteristics of P-Block Elements can be explained in the following ways:-
Properties of P-Block Metals
- They are shiny and have classic metal characteristics. Easily electrons are lost, and they are a good conductor of heat and electricity.
- P-Block Metals normally have high melting points, and it reacts with nonmetals to form ionic components.
- Some P-Block Metals are Gallium (3rd row of column 3A), Tin (4th row of column 4A). They are very crucial metals as they form components of many mental alloys.
Properties of P-Block Metalloids
- Both metals and nonmetals are the properties of Metalloids. But there is no universal definition of the term “Metalloids.”
- The elements which are conceded, as Metalloids are in the P-Block such as boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, tellurium, and antinomy.
- One of the best metalloids is silicon. It is used in many electronic devices.
Properties of P-Block Non-Metals
- Almost all the elements of P-Block are nonmetals. They are poor conductors of heat, have low boiling points, and electrons are not lost easily.
- There are mainly two types of P-Block nonmetals: solid and liquid. Example of solid: carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, and liquid: bromine.
All the elements of group 13 of the periodic table are called the boron family. Boron tends to behave differently as compare to other elements in group 13 because of the following reasons:-
- Because of its small size.
- As it has a high ionisation enthalpy.
- Because of its small size, it has high electronegativity.
- As D-orbital in the valence shell is missing.
Trends in Properties of the Boron Family
- They tend to form tri-chlorides, bromides, and iodides as it reacts with halogens.
- In an aqueous medium, the components of tetrahedral and octahedral exist.
- Trihalides are strong Lewis acids as they lack electrons.
- As we move from boron to thallium, metallic characters increase down the group.
Anomalous Properties of the Boron Family
- Since d-orbitals are missing, the maximum covalency of boron is 4.
- Other elements in the family, other than boron oxides and hydroids, form oxides and hydroxides. As boron oxides and hydroxides are acidic.
- The rest of the family are post-transition metals except boron which is metalloid.
In a periodic table, the group 14 elements are called the carbon family. They are the second group in the P-block of the periodic table. The members of this family are carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, and flerovium. They generally have an electronic configuration of ns2np2. In the outermost p orbitals, these elements have 2 electrons.
Anomalous Behavior of Carbon Family
- They are small in size.
- They have high electronegativity.
- They have high ionisation enthalpy.
- D-orbital in the valence shell is absent.
- The group 14 elements are lesser than that of group 13 elements in the periodic table.
- The group 14, ionisation energy is much greater than group 13 elements. The order is as follows, C > Si > Ge > Pb > Sn
C & Si – Non-metals
Ge – Metalloid
Sn & Pb – Soft metals
- They are less electropositive.
- Carbon’s melting point is very high. They are highly stable and possess a diamond-type lattice structure.
Carbon due to their ability to catenate tends to form hydrides. Some of the hydrides of carbons are:- Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatic compounds. It is to be noted that carbons do not form dihalides. Oxides type M0 and M02 are formed by the group 14 elements.
Chalcogens are called the oxygen group. All the elements found in group 16 of the periodic table are part of the oxygen family. The chemical symbol of oxygen is O. The oxygen family consists of oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. They are in both free and combined states. Oxygen is an element that is known to all as it plays a very cardinal role in sustaining life on earth. It differs from the rest of the elements, because of the following reasons:-
- It is small in size.
- It has a higher electronegativity.
- D-atomic in the valence shell is absent.
- It tends to form multiple bonding.
General Properties of the Oxygen Family
- Atomic Ionic radii increase from top to bottom in the group, due to an increase in the number of shells.
- It has less electron gain enthalpy than sulphur, due to its compact nature.
- As the atomic number increases down the group, the melting and boiling point increases.
How can the Chalcogens be Isolated?
- When there is a separation of air into oxygen and nitrogen.
- From Natural gas and oil, sulfur can be extracted.
- With the help of particle accelerators, Livermorium and polonium can be created.