# Chapter 2 – Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Have you noticed a comb run through one’s dry hair attracts small bits of paper? Why? Does this phenomenon question your brain and the forces acting behind the actions? Then you are at the right space to find the answers.

This happens due to the presence of Electrostatic energy, which is created due to the friction of comb and dry hair. The comb gets charged by friction, and the molecules in the comb are polarised due to the charged comb. On a rainy day or when the hair is wet, this friction does not take place, resulting in no charge production in the comb. This is the phenomenon of Electrostatic potential or energy, which will further be discussed in the chapter Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance.

This blog will discuss Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance. Electrostatics can be defined as the study of forces between the charges according to Coulomb’s Law. This section will cover topics such as Potential, Equipotential Surface, Potential Energy, etc.

#### Potential

It can be defined as the amount of work that is required to be done in order to move an electric charge say q from a reference point to a specific point in an electric field without the production of any acceleration.

V = k*charge/distance of separation where,
V = Electric Potential
K = Coulomb constant
Q = Charge
R = Distance of separation

Potential can also be discussed as the difference in potential energy per unit charge between two locations in an electric field.

#### Equipotential Surface

Any surface having a constant potential is known as Equipotential Surface. The potential difference is determined to be zero between any two points when on an equipotential surface.
Properties of an equipotential surface are as below:

• When a charge is moved from one point to another on an equipotential surface, the work done is zero.
• The electric field is always perpendicular to an equipotential surface.
• The regions of strong and weak fields can be identified with the spacing between equipotential surfaces.
• Two equipotential surfaces can never intersect. If two equipotential surfaces could intersect, then at the point of intersection there would be two values of electric potential, which is not possible.

#### Potential Energy

Do you ever wonder why a spring elongates when stretched or springs back up when pressure is exerted on it? This may be caused due to the presence of Kinetic energy used to compress a spring, which is stored as potential energy until released. The potential energy of an object is based on the position, state, and the arrangement in which the object is kept. It can be defined as energy that is stored, or conserved, in an object or substance.

W = mass×acceleration due to gravity×height = mgh where,

• m is the mass in kilograms
• g is the acceleration due to gravity
• h is the height in meters

This energy has the potential to do work, and when the position, arrangement, or state of the object is changed, the stored energy is released. There are two different types of potential energy:

• Gravitational Potential Energy can be defined as energy, which is stored in an object that is placed vertically, due to the force of gravity acting to pull it down.
• Elastic Potential Energy can be defined as energy stored in objects, which can be stretched or compressed. Examples: rubber bands and trampolines.

#### Polarisation

Whether polar or nonpolar, a dielectric develops a net dipole moment in the presence of an external field. The dipole moment per unit volume is called polarisation and is denoted by P for linear isotropic dielectrics.

P E = χe where,
χe is a constant characteristic of the dielectric and is known as the electric susceptibility of the dielectric medium.

#### Capacitor

A capacitor is a system of two conductors separated by an insulator. It can be defined as a simple passive device, which stores an electric charge on their plates when connected to a voltage source.

• They have the capacity to store energy in the form of electrical charge.
• They produce potential differences across their plates.
• A capacitor consists of two or more parallel conductive (metal) plates.
• Not connected.
• These plates are electrically separated.
• A dielectric is an insulating layer between capacitor plates.

Capacitance can be defined by the property of a capacitor to store charge on its plates in an electrostatic field form. The resistance of change of voltage across a capacitor is also defined as the capacitance of a capacitor.

It is the ability of a capacitor to store electric charge on its two plates. The unit of Capacitance is known as Farad (F) that is named after Michael Faraday.

Ø  Standard Units of Capacitance

• Microfarad (μF) 1μF = 1/1,000,000 = 0.000001 = 10-6 F
• Nanofarad (nF) 1nF = 1/1,000,000,000 = 0.000000001 = 10-9 F
• Picofarad (pF) 1pF = 1/1,000,000,000,000 = 0.000000000001 = 10-12 F

Ø  Parallel Plate Capacitor

A parallel plate capacitor consists of two large plane parallel conducting plates separated by a small distance.

Ø  Combination of Capacitor

We can combine several capacitors of capacitance C1, C2,…, Cn to obtain a system with some effective capacitance C. Effective Capacitance depends on the way the individual capacitors are combined. Capacitors can be placed in two combinations such as Capacitors in Series and Capacitors in Parallel.

Hope to have solved your queries regarding the Electrostatic Potential And Capacitance. For a detailed explanation for such content keep visiting www.MSVgo.com!

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electron Beams and Radioactivity
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Adolescent Issues
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Algebra – Quadratic Equations
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Quadrilaterals
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Chemistry in Your Life
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Light, Shadows And Reflections
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Addition
• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time
Please switch to portrait mode
for the best experience.