Syllabus covered in the MSVgo app

Free Unlimited Access till 31st March, 2021

Download Now

Chapter 11 – Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids are commonly found in plant and animal species. They form an important part of the biochemical processes of living organisms. For better conceptual knowledge of their role in organic chemistry, you need to be aware of their structure, nomenclature, and preparation methods.

Aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids are organic compounds containing carbonyl groups, i.e., carbon-oxygen double bond (C=O). The carbonyl group is considered crucial in the study of organic compounds. In the case of aldehydes, the carbonyl group has bonds with hydrogen and carbon, whereas it is attached to two carbon atoms in ketones. On the other hand, in carboxylic acids, the carbonyl group is bonded with oxygen.

Aldehydes and Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are regarded as the simplest of all carbonyl compounds. The functional group of aldehydes is ‘-CHO,’ and that of ketones is ‘C=O.’

Generally, these compounds are named in two different ways:

  1. Common Names

Most aldehydes are named after their corresponding carboxylic acid group. Here, the ending ‘-ic’ part of carboxylic acid’s common name is replaced with the word ‘aldehyde.’ For example, the name of ‘acetaldehyde’ is derived from ‘acetic acid.’ These names indicate the Greek or Latin term used for the original source of that aldehyde or acid.

Similarly, the ketones are named after their aryl or alkyl groups that are attached to the carbonyl group. For example, ketone with a propyl group is named propiophenone. Some of the ketones also have historical names.

  1. IUPAC Names

While the common name ‘benzaldehydes’ is included by IUPAC as such only, other aldehydes and ketones are named by the following rules:

  • The open-chain aliphatic ketones and aldehydes have names derived from their corresponding alkanes where the ending part ‘-e’ is replaced with ‘-one’ and ‘al’ respectively.
  • In ketones, the longest carbon chain is assigned numbers from the end nearest to the carbonyl group, but in aldehydes, the numbering is done from the starting carbon of the group.
  • If the aldehyde group is bonded with a ring, the complete name of cycloalkane is prefixed with the word ‘carbaldehyde.’

The carbon atoms of the carbonyl group are sp2 hybridized and create three sigma (σ) bonds. So, the valence electron that remains in the p-orbital orbital of carbon creates a π-bond by overlapping with the p-orbital of oxygen. Further, the oxygen atom has two non-bonded electron pairs. Therefore, the carbon atom of carbonyl and other three atoms bonded to it are in the same plane form a trigonal planar structure while the π-electron cloud lies above and below the plane. The carbon-oxygen double bond has polarity due to the relatively higher electronegativity of oxygen.

Aldehydes and ketones are mostly prepared by oxidizing primary and secondary alcohols respectively. For example, when ethanol is used as the primary alcohol, treating it with an oxidizing agent will produce ethanal (acetaldehyde). However, excessive oxidation can turn the aldehyde into carboxylic acid.

This kind of further reaction does not occur in the case of secondary alcohol. For instance, when propan-2-ol is heated with acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution, propanone is formed. Here, using an excess amount of oxidising agent or alcohol makes no difference to the final product.

Apart from the methods mentioned above, there are several other ways of preparing aldehydes and ketones; like hydrogenation of alcohols, hydration of alkynes, ozonolysis of alkenes, etc.

Carboxylic acids are one of the oldest known organic compounds found in nature. They carry carboxyl functional groups (-COOH) containing the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Carboxylic acids have many derivatives in the form of amides, esters, etc.

Most carboxylic acids are known by their common names that end with the suffix ‘-ic acid.’ These names are based on the Greek or Latin terms used for their natural resources. For example, formic acid, acetic acid, etc.

In IUPAC, the names of aliphatic carboxylic acids are kept by replacing the last ‘-e’ of the corresponding alkane with ‘-oic acid.’ For example, ethanoic acid.

Structure of Carboxyl Group

Like the carbonyl group, the hydroxyl oxygen is sp2 hybridised resulting in the conjugation of an unbonded electron pair and the π structure of carbonyl. So, the bonds of carboxyl carbon are in one plane separated by 120°. The resonant structure of carboxylic carbon makes it less electrophilic compared to the carbonyl carbon.

Similar to aldehydes, carboxylic acids are prepared by oxidation of primary with common oxidants like potassium permanganate. Alternatively, carboxylic acids can also be prepared from aldehydes using mild oxidants.

Other methods of preparing carboxylic acids include hydrolysis of esters or nitriles, oxidation of alkylbenzenes, etc.

For a more detailed understanding of these concepts along with examples, you can check out videos on MSVgo. Opt for MSVgo, a mobile application that covers math, chemistry, biology, etc. for classes 6 to 12. It also provides studying videos/animations for different boards like CBSE, ICSC, ISC, IGCSE & IB. Download the MSVgo app right now for great visual explanations!

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
Please switch to portrait mode
for the best experience.
Click to open Popup