# Chapter 15 – Some Natural Phenomena

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Class 8 Science chapter ‘Some Natural Phenomena’ talks about earthquakes and lightning as critical phenomena of nature. It also discusses various methods to limit destruction from these natural phenomena.

You must have experienced lightning and earthquakes, but do you know the reason behind these phenomena?  Do you know how to protect yourself and your belongings during these disasters? The Class 8 chapter discusses these issues and more.

Some Natural Phenomena covers the following topics:

• Static charges and, methods of charging
• Charging by rubbing
• Types of charged objects
• Interaction between charges
• Transfer of charges
• Lightning
• Earthquakes
• Safety from lightning and earthquakes

#### What is Natural Phenomena?

Natural phenomena are any processes that occur naturally without human involvement. Some most commonly occurring natural phenomena that you must have experienced are Lightning and Earthquake.

#### Static charges

A static charge is a form of electricity formed as a result of an imbalance between negative and positive charges.

Methods of Charging

• The body gets charged by rubbing due to friction, you must have experienced it while walking.
• Charges produced during rubbing cause an imbalance between charges, and this process is called static charges.
• Charging through induction and charging by contact are some methods of charging.

Charging due to rubbing

• You must have tried rubbing a plastic scale with your hair and watched as it got charged to attract small pieces of paper.
• It gets charged due to imbalance between charges because of which there is a change in electrons, and small pieces of paper are attracted towards the scale.

#### Charged objects

Charged objects are objects that become charged due to rubbing and other charging processes. Types of charged objects:

• Neutral: Positive and negative electrons in an object are equal.
• Positively charged: When protons are more than electrons in an object, it is called a positively charged object.
• Negatively charged: When negative charges are more as compared to positive charges in an object, it is called a negatively charged object.

#### Interaction Between Charges and Transfer of Charges

Interaction of positive and negative charges causes two phenomena: Repulsion and Attraction.

• Positive and negative charges attract each other.
• Two positive charges repel each other.
• Two negative charges repel each other.

Transfer of charges

Charges transfer from a good conductor of electricity like metals and water to another good conductor of electricity due to electrons’ movement between the two conductors. Passing electricity causes the movement of electrons, which further causes the transfer of charges.

#### Lightning

The story of lightning starts from heavy rainfall or storms where the particles of air and water droplets in the storm cloud collide, thereby causing a separation of charges between the cloud and the ground, which creates an imbalance in nature. The ground becomes positively charged while the storm cloud, which is negatively charged, allows an electric discharge through the air as charges increase between ground and storm cloud. As a result, you experience lightning as nature transfers electric current between the two charges that are the ground (positively charged) and the storm cloud (negatively charged).

How to Protect Yourself From Lightning

• Outside your house: Find a safe and robust tree, stay inside a car with all doors and windows closed. Stay away from metal rods and other good conductors of electricity. Limit your exposure to lightning by crouching instead of lying on the floor.
• Inside your house: Stay away from wires, avoid using devices like mobile phones and telephones, and stay away from water as it is a good conductor of electricity.
• Minimize destruction in buildings: Use lightning conductors and earthing processes to transfer electricity directly to the earth, thus protecting the building.

#### Earthquakes

You must have experienced sudden shaking of your house floor; this phenomenon is called an earthquake. Disturbances inside the crust of the earth cause an earthquake, which results in large scale damage to population and properties.

The causes of an earthquake

• The collision of tectonic plates within the crust of the earth results in an earthquake. These tectonic plates with the earth’s crust are continuously moving and sometimes collide with each other. This collision results in an earthquake.
• Earthquakes are even caused by a sudden release of energy from some region of earth which causes sudden shaking of the earth’s crust.

How to Protect Yourself From Earthquakes

• Outside: Find a spot away from the buildings, or if possible, stay inside the car and wait until the earthquake ends.
• Inside: Stay away from wall hangings, take shelter under a table, and stay away from tall and heavy objects.
• Minimize destruction in buildings: Make sure the building is not built in an earthquake-prone area. Earthquakes often cause fire, so keep proper fire handling equipment in the building and fix your cupboard and other wall hangings properly so that they do not fall.

#### FAQs

What is Natural Phenomena?

Natural phenomena are any process that occurs naturally, and there is no human involvement like earthquakes and lightning.

Is earthing a natural phenomenon?

No, earthing is not a natural phenomenon. You can use this process to safeguard your building from lightning.

What are the three most destructive natural phenomena?

Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis are the three most destructive natural phenomena.

Which natural phenomenon is responsible for lightning?

Electric discharge between different clouds or between cloud and ground is responsible for lightning.

What causes a natural phenomenon?

Natural imbalances like heavy rainfall and the collision of tectonic plates are the reasons for natural phenomena.

What are the physical phenomena?

All-natural phenomena that consider the physical properties of energy and matter are called physical phenomena like erosion.

Natural phenomena is a very interesting and important chapter of science. So, the visual representation of topics is very important. The MSVgo app is a video library that helps you understand topics through exploratory visualizations and practical examples. MSVgo helps you to understand the science behind formulas and phenomena through animations and videos. So, do check out the videos at MSVgo for better understanding and clarification.

Some Natural Phenomena is not only an important chapter but also a life lesson for you Do practice the measures to protect yourself from these natural phenomena if you ever face them. This chapter forms a base for upcoming science chapters like friction, tectonic plates, and Earth’s crust.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time