The electric charge that flows through two conducting solutions, that is point A and point B, is called an electric current. To understand precisely, you can imagine a river. The water in a river carries energy from one place to another place. The electrolysis of water was discovered by William Nicholson.
An electric current can produce chemical effects and magnetic effects, like electrochemical reactions. If the electric current flows between conduction solutions, then a chemical reaction takes place in the solution.
The chemical reaction which takes place in conducting solution after passing through an electric current is called the chemical effect of electric current. Following are a few examples of chemical effects of electric current:
· Metals deposited can be seen on electrodes.
· Gas Bubbles are formed at electrodes.
· Change of colour or texture of the solution.
A good conductor is a substance, material, or object that allows free flow of electric current. Conductors conduct electricity as electrons can flow within them on an atom level. They are the easy transmission of heat and light.
2 types of conductors
Mainly, conductors are divided into two types - good conductors and bad conductors.
What is a good conductor?
Good conductors of electricity are materials that allow a free passage of electric current. Aluminium and copper are examples of good conductors.
What is a bad conductor?
Bad conductors of electricity are materials that do not allow a free passage of electric current. Plastics and rubber are bad conductors of electricity.
Few liquids are good conductors of electricity, while many are bad conductors. Water that is obtained from various sources like wells, pumps, taps, and ponds is not pure and has several dissolved salts. This type of water is a good conductor of electricity. Distilled water that does not have salt is a bad conductor of electricity.
As we have already discussed above, some liquids are good conductors of electricity while others are bad conductors of electricity. But most importantly, electricity doesn’t conduct through all types of liquids.
Let’s take a look at the good and bad conductors of liquids:
Good/ Bad Conductor
When an electric current passes through a conducting solution, it results in a chemical reaction. And because of this, gas bubbles are deposited on the electrodes. Metal deposits may also be seen on electrodes. The reaction will be based on what electrodes and solutions are used.
Electricity passing through water is generally mixed with various substances and its constituents are broken into different positive and negative ions. These positive and negative ions pass an electric current through them. When the number of ions is more, the electrical conductor is better.
An electric circuit is a closed-loop path in which electrons travel to form electric currents. When the circuit trail is closed, the current flows through it. But if the circuit is open, the current will not flow.
· Construct a circuit using a cell and connect an LED as well as wires.
· The free ends of the wire should be inserted into a beaker of water without touching one another.
· LED glows to indicate that the liquid is a conductor of electricity. And if the LED does not glow, then it indicates that liquid is not conducted by the electricity.
· The high brightness of LEDs means the liquid is a good conductor of electricity.
· Similarly, the low brightness of the LED bulb means the liquid is not a good conductor of electricity. Rather, it is a bad conductor of electricity.
The first source of electrical energy allows the electron to move freely in an electric circuit. This type of source is also known as a battery. A battery consists of two terminals - positive and negative. These two terminals are necessary for the charge that flows from one end to the other.
The electric circuit device is the second most important component that responds to the current accordingly. The device may be of any type that can be operated by a wall socket and can always be used with electricity.
Every circuit has a resistance of electricity, and it is its third component. There are mainly two types of electric circuits, namely - parallel circuits and series circuits. These two types of circuits are easily found in our homes on day-to-day devices.
A large loop linking several devices is called a series circuit. In a series circuit, the current flow is the same for all the devices. If a single device breaks, then the complete circuit fails.
A piece of electrical equipment that checks the presence of an electric current is called a tester. This conductor has a bulb/ led that indicates that the current is present within the circuit.
Parallel circuits are different from the series circuit. Here, different devices are managed in a specific manner. Even if a single device breaks, the complete circuit will not fail.
The chemical substances that dissociate for making ions if dissolved during a solution are called acids and bases. Acids and bases are the loyal conductors of electricity, as they have ions.
What is acid?
Acid is derived from the Latin word ‘acidus’. Acidus means sour. In our surroundings, there are many acids. One of the acids is called citric acid, and it is present in oranges and lemons.
What is a base?
The taste of a base is bitter, and it is soapy. Lit litmus paper when contacted with bases turns blue. But the colour of the blue litmus paper does not change. An example of a base is household bleach.
What is salt?
The end product of the reaction between base and acid is called common salt.
· Due to the absence of dissolved minerals and water, distilled water is a bad conductor.
· Water conducts when bases, acid, and salt are dissolved and releases ions. This is conducted when a possible difference is applied.
· Coating gold and silver for jewellery.
· Coating zinc on the iron for prevention of rust and corrosion.
· The coating of Chromium for bath fittings, car parks as it has a shiny appearance.
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Q1. What causes a chemical reaction?
Answer: Electric current passage through a conducting solution may cause a chemical reaction. It may cause bubble formation of gas on the electrodes, colour changes of solutions, deposits of metals on electrodes, etc.
Q2. What are the three effects of electric current?
Answer: The three effects of electric current are:
· Magnetic effect
· Heating effect and
· Chemical effect
Q3. Give an example of the chemical effect of electric current?
Answer: An example of the chemical effect of electric current is the change in colour of electroplating and solutions.
Q4. What do you mean by the electric effect?
Answer: Electric effect means about electric efforts of light or other radiation, such as electrons emission, voltage generation, or electrical resistance change upon the exposure to light.