Students who have difficulty preparing for their exams should use ‘Reaching the Age of Adolescence’ as their study guide. Answers to all of the NCERT textbook questions can be found in the NCERT Solutions manual. Students can also download these solutions in PDF format for free to prepare their notes and other class assignments.
In this section, we'll study the physical changes that occur in the human body when a person is able to reproduce. When a youngster develops into an adult, many physical and behavioural changes are brought about by hormones.
The onset of adolescence and puberty can be traced back to the moment a person is born. However, a significant growth spurt occurs when a child reaches the tenth or eleventh birthday. Body changes are a normal aspect of maturation. Having them is a sign that you are transitioning from a child to an adult.
The process of maturation is a normal part of life. During this time, the body undergoes the changes necessary to reach reproductive maturity. This is referred to as adolescence. Adolescence lasts from the age of 11 until the age of 18 or 19.
Adolescents are also referred to as "teenagers" because they are between 13 to 18 or 19 years old. Compared to boys, girls may begin adolescence a year or two sooner. We must also consider the fact that each person's experience with adolescence is unique.
During adolescence, the body goes through several transformations. These developments are marked by puberty. The most significant change that occurs throughout puberty is the development of reproductive organs in boys and girls. When an adolescent reaches sexual maturity, puberty is over.
Height increase: The most apparent alteration occurs during puberty when a person's height suddenly increases. Long bones, such as those in the arms and legs, elongate in this period, making a person appear taller.
Body shape changes: In terms of proportions, do boys in your grade seem to be getting bigger shoulders and chests than their peers in lower grades? Because they've entered puberty, shoulders tend to widen due to growth. The area below the waist expands in girls.
Boys' muscles outgrow those of girls by a wide margin during puberty. As a result, the developmental stages of teenage boys and girls differ.
Changes in voice: Do you ever notice how the voice cracks for some of the lads in your class? A person's larynx, also called the voice box, grows during puberty. Boys have larger vocal cords than girls. Boys' developing voice boxes are visible as Adam's apple, part of the throat that protrudes.
Because of its diminutive size, the larynx in girls is virtually invisible to the naked eye. High-pitched female voices and deep male voices are more common. When the muscles of the developing voice box goes a bit out of control in adolescent boys, their voices become hoarse. After a few days or weeks of this condition, the voice returns to normal.
Sebaceous and Sweat Glands Activity: The sebaceous and sweat glands (oil glands) produce more secretion during puberty. As a result, many young people have pimples and acne on their faces during this time.
Sex organs development: The penis and testes and other male genitalia, fully mature during puberty. Sperm production begins in the testicles as well. Girls' ovaries swell and their eggs start maturing as they get older. Mature eggs are also released from the ovaries.
Adolescence is also a time when a person's intellectual, emotional, and mental changes. A person's brain is most receptive to new information during this period. Adolescents are more self-aware and independent than ever before. They become more intelligent and spend a lot of time pondering their thoughts.
As a result, a teenager may experience insecurity as they adjust to the changes in their body and mind. As adolescent learners, you shouldn't be concerned about your level of comfort with the material. When you're a kid, it's normal to go through these changes.
The reproductive organs, the testes and ovaries, serve as secondary sexual characters. The gametes, or sperm and ovum, are produced by them. Puberty marks the onset of female breast development and male facial hair growth, such as the development of male moustaches and beards. These characteristics are known as secondary sexual characteristics because they aid in identifying males from females. Boys, like girls, grow hair on their chests. Hair grows in both sexes under the arms and above the thighs or pubic region.
Hormones play a major role in adolescence. Hormones are chemical compounds produced by the endocrine glands of the endocrine system. At puberty, the testes begin to release testosterone, the male hormone.
You've just learned about some of these changes in boys, such as facial hair growth, as a result of this.
When girls enter puberty, their ovaries begin producing estrogen, the female hormone responsible for the development of breast tissue. The mammary glands, which produce milk, grow inside the breasts. The pituitary gland, an endocrine gland, secretes another hormone that regulates the body's production of these hormones.
For the hormone to reach its intended target site, endocrine glands secrete it into the bloodstream. The hormone has an effect on the area it is intended to reach in the body. The body contains a large number of endocrine glands, often known as ductless glands. Sex hormones are produced by the testes and ovaries of the male and female reproductive systems.
As you've just learned, these hormones are what give rise to secondary sexual characteristics in both men and women. In addition, the pituitary gland regulates sex hormone production.
One of the several hormones that the pituitary glands secrete is responsible for ova maturation in the ovaries and the formation of sperm in the testes.
When adolescent ovaries and testes begin to create gametes, they are able to reproduce. Males' gamete maturation and production capacity are substantially greater than that of females', and it lasts for a much longer time.
Women begin their reproductive lives during adolescence (10 to 12 years old) and continue through menopause (45 to 50 years old). Ovarian maturation begins during puberty. One ovary releases an ovum once every 28 to 30 days when it is fully mature.
When an egg is fertilized and begins to develop, the uterine wall thickens so that it can receive the embryo. Pregnancy is the result. If fertilisation fails, the egg, the thicker uterine lining, and its blood arteries are all removed. This results in menstruation, a type of bleeding that occurs in women.
Every 28 to 30 days, a woman experiences menstruation. Menarche is the name for the menstrual flow that occurs for the first time during puberty. Menstruation often ceases between the ages of 45 and 50. Menopause is the word for the cessation of menstrual cycles. An irregular menstrual cycle is common at first. Regularity takes time to develop.
Hormones are responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle. When an egg matures, it's released and the uterine membrane thickens, but if pregnancy doesn't happen, the cycle breaks down. A fertilized egg begins to divide and eventually implants itself in the uterus, where it grows and develops.
Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development, which necessitates a healthy diet. The diet of an adolescent must therefore be meticulously managed. A healthy, well-balanced diet is something you already know about.
There must be adequate amounts of protein, carbs, fats, and vitamins in each meal for a well-balanced diet. Roti/rice, dal (lentils), and vegetables make up a healthy Indian dinner. Dairy is a complete and well-balanced diet in and of itself. Fruits are also a good source of nutrition.
Iron-rich foods, such as green vegetables, meat, jaggery, citrus, and Indian gooseberry (amla), are recommended for adolescents.
Make sure you have enough food for both lunch and dinner. Is the food healthful and well-balanced? Is it made up of grains that supply energy, and milk, meat, nuts, and pulses that contain protein? Does it have lipids and sugar, which provide the body with the necessary energy? What about fruits and vegetables, which are known for their health benefits? Even though they are delicious, chips and tinned snacks should never be used as a substitute for a balanced diet.
After puberty, humans can reproduce. Adolescents are children between the ages of 11 and 19.
In puberty, the reproductive organs begin to develop. Hair growth is seen in many locations on the body. Girls develop breasts, and boys get facial hair (a moustache and a beard). As the voice box expands during adolescence, boys' voices grow raspy.
During adolescence, children grow taller. Controlling the beginning of puberty and the maturation of reproductive organs is a hormone-dependent process.
Endocrine glands release hormones straight into the bloodstream.
The pituitary gland secretes various hormones, including growth hormone and those hormones that stimulate the production of hormones by other organ systems, including the testicles and ovaries, the thyroid and the adrenals. The pancreas secretes insulin, the thyroid makes thyroxine, and the adrenal glands make adrenaline.
The male hormone is testosterone, and the female hormone is estrogen. In females, the uterine wall gets ready to receive a fertilized egg in the process of development. In the absence of fertilization, the thicker lining of the uterine walls breaks down and is expelled from the body with the blood. This is referred to as menstruation.
It's critical to maintain proper hygiene and to eat a well-balanced diet as a teenager.