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Chapter 9 – Reproduction in Animals

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Reproduction is a way of producing offspring of the same species. Have you ever looked at the young ones of the animals and wondered how they were born? You might have already learned about plant reproduction, and now we will learn about reproduction in animals

Give it a thought, what would happen if the animals, plants, or any organism stopped reproducing? They will be wiped off from the ecosystem. Since every individual plays an integral part in balancing the ecosystem of the earth, reproduction is necessary.

The reproduction in animals takes places in two ways, depending on the number of parents involved:

  • Sexually
  • Asexually

Like plants, animals have two different sets of reproductive species- Female and Male, and both have different reproductive organs called Gonads. The gonads form gametes. These gametes combine to create a zygote, a single cell that develops into a new animal.

However, certain animals like earthworms, snails, etc., have male and female reproductive organs in one organism and are called hermaphrodites.

Sexual reproduction in animals can be defined as when the gametes from both male and female fuse together to form a zygote, which then develops into a new individual. Now you must be wondering how the gametes can fuse? To understand that, let’s discuss the reproductive organs of both males and females. 

Male Reproductive Organs

Male reproductive organ is made up of two sperm ducts, testes (a pair), and a penis. It is the testes that produce male gametes, called sperms. Testes can make millions of sperms. Sperms are microscopic in size (i.e., they cannot be seen with naked eyes), and each sperm has a tail (which helps in swimming), a middle part, and a head. In simpler words, sperms are a single cell that has all the necessary components of the cell. 

Female Reproductive Organs

The reproductive organs in females consist of ovaries, uterus, and oviducts (also called fallopian tubes). The ovary produces ova (eggs) which are the female gametes. A mature egg is released into the oviduct every month by one of the ovaries. The baby develops in the uterus after the sperm successfully fertilizes it. 

Reproduction begins when the sperm comes in contact with an ova or the egg. This merging of the sperm and egg is called fertilization. The nuclei of the egg and sperm together forms a single nucleus called the zygote. 

Internal fertilization is the fertilization that takes place in the uterus of the female, i.e., inside the body of the female. Even though this fertilization method is commonly found in terrestrial animals, some aquatic animals also use this method to give birth to offspring.

There is another method of sexual fertilization that takes place outside the body of the female. Such fertilization occurs in water. In this method, the female lays thousands of eggs. These eggs are very delicate and have a thin jelly-like layer protecting the eggs. The sperm from male animal is deposited over the eggs. When the sperm and egg come in contact with each other, fertilization takes place. This is called external fertilization.

After the sperm and egg fertilize, a zygote is formed. The zygote makes balls of cells by dividing repeatedly. These cells then form into groups that further grow into different tissues and organs of the body. The structure formed is called an embryo, which attaches itself to the wall of the uterus to develop further. The embryo further develops hands, legs, and other body parts and is termed fetus.

As opposed to sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction is mostly seen in unicellular microbes and lower organisms. In asexual reproduction, a new individual is formed without the involvement of the gamete. There are different types of asexual reproductions:

  • Binary Fission: In this method, the cell increases in size through mitosis, and the nucleus is divided into two small cells, each containing a nucleus. This method generally takes place in amoeba and euglena. 
  • Budding: In the budding method, the offspring remains attached to the parents’ body until it matures. Afterward, it detaches itself from the parent and continues as an individual living organism. Budding is commonly found in Hydras. 
  • Fragmentation: It is the method in which the body of the single parent fragments into smaller pieces. The small pieces grow into individual offsprings. Seastar is a typical example of this method. 
  • Regeneration: This method differs slightly from fragmentation. If one part of the organism detaches from the parent body, it can grow into a whole new individual.
  • Parthenogenesis: It is the method where the egg develops without fertilization. Bees, wasps, ants, etc., are examples of this method.
  • What are 3 ways animals reproduce?

Animals reproduce either sexually or asexually. Animals that can reproduce by themselves are called hermaphrodites. 

  • What are the two ways of reproduction in animals?

 Animals have two ways of reproduction: Sexual and Asexual.

  • Why do animals reproduce?

Animals reproduce to give birth to young ones which will continue their species and save them from extinction. 

  • Why is animal reproduction important?

Animals play an important part in the ecosystem. Their reproduction is necessary for the species to survive. 

  • Do any animals reproduce asexually?

Unicellular animals like an amoeba, euglena, hydras, etc can reproduce asexually. 

  • Do starfish have eyes?

Starfish have eyes on each arm. When one arm is detached from the body, it grows back into a new starfish and the eye on the arm helps them see. 

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In conclusion, reproduction in animals takes places in two ways: Sexual and Asexual. Sexual reproduction requires a male and female. In sexual reproduction, the sperm combines with the egg to form a zygote which further develops into a fetus and attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. While asexual reproduction requires a single parent which can divide itself into multiple cells to form new life.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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