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Chapter 11 – p -Block Elements

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

In the periodic table, each block is identified by its specific orbital which are S-Block, P-Block, D-Block, and F-Block. P-Block elements are those in which the last electron enters the outermost p-subshell. It begins from the 13th group and continues till the 18th group in the periodic table. They are found on the right side of the periodic table and include the Boron family, Carbon family, Nitrogen family, Oxygen family, and fluorine. The alteration in characteristics of the P-Block elements is due to the impact of d and f electrons in the inner core of the heavier elements.

The P-Block is the section of the periodic table which includes columns 3A to column 8A but does not include helium. Consisting of 35 PBlock elements, all have valence electrons in the p orbital. 

P-Block elements have a physical feature of being shiny and generally are a good conductor of heat and electricity. Since they tend to lose electrons, they display some special properties. For instance, an element like Gallium can melt in the palm while Silicon is used in the manufacture of glass and is an important metalloid of the P-Block group.

The electronic configuration of elements from group 13 to 18 of P-Block is as follows:-

Group 13 of Boron family:- ns2 np1

Group 14 of Carbon family:- ns2 np2

Group 15 of Nitrogen family:- ns2 np3

Group 16 of Oxygen family:- ns2 np4

Group 17 of Halogen family:- ns 2 np5

Group 18 of Noble gases:- ns2 np6, except that of Helium.

  1. The metallic nature tends to increase moving down every group while it declines as we go from left to right. 
  2. The atomic density of elements in P-Block increases down the group due to an increase in the atom’s size down the group.
  3. The oxidation states increase as we move from left to right in the periodic table.
  4. The ionic radius increases down the group as one additional shell gets added to the element with an increase in the atomic number. The atomic radius increases highly from Boron to Aluminum. 
  5. The P-Block elements generally have a positive anode potential, and part of it decreases down the groups.
  6. The chemical reactivity of elements in the P-Block increases as we move to the right in a period. But as we move down in a group, the chemical reactivity of elements declines.
  7. All elements in the P-Block are silvery solids except element boron, which is brown solid.

The Boron Family contains elements in group 13 of the periodic table, including the semi-metal boron and the metals aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium. They have three electrons in their outermost shell with a full s orbital and one electron in the p orbital and the valence electron configuration is ns2np1.

The Carbon Family is group 14 of the periodic table consisting of five elements: carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead. Atoms in this group have four valence electrons. Generally, family elements are stable and tend to be somewhat unreactive.

The Oxygen Family is also called the chalcogens, consisting of the elements in Group 16. It consists of the elements oxygen, selenium, sulfur, tellurium, and polonium. These are found in both free and combined states in nature.

1. What are the P-Block elements?

The P-Block is located on the right side of the periodic table and comprises elements from 13 to 18. Here, the valence electrons are in the p orbital. 

2. How do you remember the P-Block elements?

Remember the following phrases-

For Group 13 -‘Brother Andrew got intelligent thought’ stands for Boron, Aluminium, Gallium, Indium, and Thallium, respectively. 

For Group 14 – ‘Can Son go to left’ stands for Carbon, Silicon, Germanium, Tin, and Lead, respectively. 

For Group 15- ‘Nobody passed away answer back’ which stands for Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth. 

For Group 16 – ‘Oh somebody should tell possible’ stands for Oxygen, Sulphur, Selenium, Tellurium, and Polonium. 

For group 17 – ‘Fish can’t breathe in air’ stands for Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine. 

For Group 18 – ‘He never arrived kid xeroxed randomly’ which stands for Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon.

3. What is the easiest way to memorize the periodic table?

The New Periodic table song can help. Try it.

4. Why is Helium in P-Block?

In spite of having the configuration of S-Block elements, Helium is closely related to the noble gases. It is much less reactive like other inert gases, and its chemical properties are more alike to the P-Block noble gases in group 18 because of a full shell. For all these reasons, it is in the P-Block.

5. Is P-Block metal or nonmetal?

The P-Block comprises metals, non-metals, and metalloids. The crisscross line which is present in the P-Block isolates metals from non-metals. Metals are found on the left of the line, whereas non-metals are those on the right. Along the line, there are metalloids.

So, elements having a place from group 13 to group 18  together frame the P-Block of the periodic table. They show various properties as we move right or down the group. Also, Carbon Family, Boron Family, and Oxygen family form part of the P-Block. 

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High School Physics

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