The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
There have been many scientists who have attempted to classify the various living organisms in the past. Two significant classification systems that are useful to you are:
The main criteria used by Whittaker for classification of all living organisms into these five kingdoms are–
After classifying living organisms into five kingdoms, Whittaker also gave the taxonomy that these organisms can be further segregated under each kingdom. According to Whittaker, the diversity of living organisms was so varied and complex that there needed to be more classifying levels. Based on this, the hierarchy of Whittaker’s Five Kingdom Classification include:-
Each kingdom is phylogenetically linked to the kingdom before it and here are some typical characteristics of each of the five kingdoms.
Examples: Bacteria, cyanobacteria, etc.
Examples: Chrysophytes, Dinoflagellates, Euglenoids, slime moulds
Examples: Yeast, Aspergillus, Mycorrhiza, etc.
Examples: Mango tree, apple tree, ferns, pine trees, etc.
Examples: Hydra, Earthworms, reptiles, man, etc.
1. Why is diversity in living organisms important?
The diversity of living organisms helps us understand how organisms have developed, how they are interlinked, and the kind of phylogenetic relationship between closely linked organisms.
2. What is the basis of classification in diversity in living organisms?
Living organisms have been classified based on cell structure, thallus organisation, their mode of nutrition, reproduction, habitats and adaptations, and phylogenetic relationships.
3. What causes diversity in organisms?
Each organism has a different genetic make-up. Their genes undergo mutation when they are subjected to different habitats and environments. It is these genetic and environmental adaptations that bring about diversity in living organisms.
4. What are the advantages of classifying organisms?
There are many advantages of classifying living organisms. These include:
5. What are the disadvantages of classifying organisms?
Few disadvantages of classifying organisms are
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The diversity of living organisms is deeply rooted in evolution as all living organisms have evolved from similar ancestors. This theory also proves with the similarities found in that many kingdoms show with their preceding and succeeding kingdoms. Have you ever observed any similarities between animals of different kingdoms? Try finding out!