The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles And Techniques introduce the organic chemistry domain to the students after learning about carbon catenation and tetravalency aspects. Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies various organic compounds with respect to their structure, reactions, and properties. These compounds are carbon-based and include a range of other elements. We will discuss some of the basic techniques required to understand the organic compound’s properties and formation.
Organic compounds are broadly classified into two categories, namely acyclic and cyclic compounds. The cyclic compounds are compounds that contain closed rings. E.g., benzene, phenolphthalein, cyclopropane, etc. Acyclic compounds are single-chain or branched-chain compounds where a linear branch arises from a root chain. These compounds are simple in stereochemistry, and some of the examples include- ethane, isobutene, acetic acid, and more.
Acetic acid is a common household name of a daily use compound. According to the nomenclature of organic compounds, it is called ethanoic acid. Those types of nomenclature of organic compounds are made by the IUPAC, which is the standard union of chemistry.
The IUPAC follows a standard rule for deriving the structure’s name by taking the compound structure, and those sets of rules are essential for finding the nomenclature of organic compounds. Bear in mind that the common name is not always the same as the IUPAC name of the compound. IUPAC rules for naming the only alkane are as follows.
Let’s look at the basic concepts of isomerism.
Any compound can have the same molecular formula yet behave differently in the presence of varied physical and chemical conditions. This property is known as isomerism and can be intuitively understood as you can change the positions of the elements/ compounds in the molecule’s organic structure. Hence it changes the properties.
In organic chemistry, reaction mechanisms refer to the all the constituent steps that comprise a reaction and which shed on all the relevant details including the movement of the electron, the formation of the bond, the energetics involved during the cleaving of the bond and eventually the the overall kinetics of the reactants and the products. Any reaction happens due to electrons’ movement and can be accounted for through the change in the system’s energy. Some basic mechanisms include:
The organic reaction mechanism is an important topic that helps us understand the methods of purification of organic compounds. You will hear some of the frequently used purification processes such as sublimation, crystallisation, distillation, fractional distillation and many more in this organic chemistry topic. Organic compounds are treated with a mixture of different compounds to selectively favor any particular compound extraction.
Qualitative analysis analyzes the compound present in a given mixture. For example, if a compound is taken, the QA would be focused on finding the elements & the ions present in the given compound rather than studying how much they are present. Example:
Detection of Carbon and Hydrogen
Na3PO4 + 3HNO3 → H3PO4 + 3NaNO3
H3PO4 + 12(NH4)2MoO4 + 21HNO3 → (NH4)3PO4.12MoO3 + 21NH4NO3 + 12H2O
Quantitative analysis focuses on finding out how much of the elements are present.
“Organic” is generally associated with the word with organic foods and products. Still, in the sciences, organic chemistry is referred to as the study of carbon compounds. Organic chemistry emphasizes the structure, properties, and applications of various carbon-containing particles that make up imperative biological molecules such as proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and vitamins.
We can understand chemical bonds in terms of electron sharing and electron transfer between atoms. The resulting ions and molecules are the basis for every substance. Much of chemistry depends on the electronic structure of the atom’s outer valence shell.
o To start, any topic answers the question of what, why, and how. For example, what is an aromatic compound? How aromatic compounds formed. Why aromatic compounds are aromatic.
o Then, read the chemical reaction and play with them like your friends.
o Repeat and write on the paper.
o Revise before sleeping.
o When you are in bed, memorize everything.
o Prepare notes and revise them in weekly periods.
o Start creating a chemical reaction.
o Write from one carbon and hydrogen.
There are essentially 4 classes of molecules that make up the cells of living organisms.
1)Carbs; saccharides (sugars) and polysaccharides (complex carbs)
2)Lipids; fats and oils, cholesterol, and most other steroids are derivatives of cholesterol
3)Proteins; amino acids, polypeptides, and enzymes
4)Nucleic acids; DNA & RNAs.
The three main categories of organic compounds are carbohydrates & lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles And Techniques marks the organic chemistry field’s starting in the NCERT chemistry book. From JEE and boards perspective, organic chemistry covers a major chunk of the chemistry syllabus. On MSVgo, you can check on some of the fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms with NCERT examples.