# Chapter 12 – Electricity And Circuits

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

The discovery of electricity was a game-changer for humans, and it transformed the way we live. We use electricity for various chores, like cooking, washing, gaming, etc. Have you ever imagined life without electricity? We are blessed to have electricity as it simplifies our daily hassles to a great extent. But have you ever wondered about the working of electricity? This chapter will see how electrical equipment is connected to a power source electric cell and the various components in an electric circuit.

#### Electric Cell

When electricity is provided from power sources, only we can light up our homes, streets, offices, etc. How does a torch bulb light itself without any external connection? Well, a torch bulb lights up with the help of an electric cell. An electric cell consists of a metal cap on one side and a metal disc on another.

The side of an electric cell with the metal cap is often termed as the positive terminal, while the other is called the negative terminal. Various chemicals are filled inside an electric cell that is used to produce electricity. Once all the chemicals inside an electric cell are used, it is not functional anymore. Various companies manufacture electric cells with diverse designs. Some electric cells also possess positive (+) & negative (-) marking on them.

#### A Bulb Connected to an Electric Cell

Just like an electric cell, an electric bulb also comprises two terminals. An electric bulb has an outer covering of glass that is fixed on a metallic base. The thin wire in the middle of an electric bulb is called the filament. The filament is further connected to two thick wires for support and completion of the circuit. A bulb connected to an electric cell completes the circuit and makes the bulb glow.

One of the thick wires is connected to the metallic base’s center, while the other is connected to the lowermost tip of the metallic base. These two connections also define the two terminals of an electric bulb. These terminals are connected to the terminals of an electric cell, and you can light up the bulb. There can be various arrangements to connect an electric bulb to any external electric source.

#### An Electric Circuit

When you connect an electric cell to an electric bulb, you connect both the cell terminals to the bulb. An electric circuit is an arrangement where both the terminals of an electric cell are connected to any electric equipment terminals, allowing the current to flow through the circuit. The electricity will only pass when the circuit is complete. The direction of the flow of current is said to originate from the positive terminals of an electric cell to its negative terminal.

An electric bulb only glows when the circuit is complete. Sometimes, an electric bulb doesn’t glow even when the circuit is complete. This may happen due to the breakage of the filament of the bulb that helps it glow. Such bulbs are termed ‘fused bulbs’ as electricity doesn’t pass through them.

#### Electric Switch

Have you used an electric torch? There is a switch provided on an electric torch that helps in switching on and off the torch. A switch is a simple device that helps in breaking or connecting any electric circuit. We also use switches for turning on/off our household electrical equipment. When we don’t have to use electricity, an electric switch can break the current flow, thus conserving electricity.

You can also design a simple switch by connecting the two terminals of a battery to wires and then connecting a safety pin in between. Make sure that the safety pin is movable. Whenever you touch the safety pin with wires on both sides, the circuit is complete. If not, then it is broken.

#### Electric Conductors and Insulators

Why did we use a safety pin in the above section to make an electric switch? It is because a safety pin is a conductor, and the current can pass through it. Electric conductors and insulators have specific electric properties. Conductors are those materials through which current can pass. Conductors are used in making electric wires, the interior of electric equipment, etc.

Insulators are those materials that do not permit electric current to pass through them. Some of the common examples of insulators are glass, oil, quartz, rubber, air, etc. Insulators are also equally important to humankind as they help manufacture the outer covering of various electric equipment. Without insulators, it would have been very tough to handle the conductors we might be exposed to current.

#### Conclusion

In this chapter, we understood the concepts of electricity & circuits. We also understood electric components such as a switch, bulb, etc. Learning about electric components, insulators, conductors, etc., will help us safely use electricity for our day-to-day needs. You can also conduct various activities mentioned in this chapter to explore more about ‘Electricity and Circuits.’

#### FAQs

Q. What are electricity and circuits?

Electricity is the flow of electric charge to transfer energy from one point to another. Electricity helps in powering up our household appliances, office lights, etc.

The path/arrangement through which electricity flows to transfer electrical energy from source to equipment is called an electrical circuit.

Q. What is an electric circuit for class 6?

An electric circuit defines the flow of current. It connects the power source (battery) and electric equipment. A circuit can be completed with the help of wires.

Q. How does electricity work in a circuit?

The electricity flows from the positive to the negative terminal of a power source in a circuit.

Q. What are the 3 requirements of a circuit?

An electric circuit requires a power source, connecting path (wires), and electric equipment like a bulb, fan, etc.

Q. What is the purpose of using an electric switch class 6?

An electric switch helps in breaking the electric circuit and then connecting it again.

Q. What is a switch class 6?

A switch helps in stopping the flow of current in an electric circuit.

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### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time