One of the most important things that scientists do is to perform experiments. Experiments are done by taking 'measurements'. Taking a measurement is assigning a numerical value to something that can be measured, such as length, mass, temperature, or volume. Determining the length, size, or amount of a measurable thing is known as measurement.
A physical quantity (such as length) must be measured against another physical quantity. A thing moving in relation to another is considered to be in motion. For example, when a car runs along the road, it moves in relation to the trees and poles, which are 'not moving.'
When the location of an object (with relation to another item) varies over time, it is said to be in motion.
The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation were quite good at measuring lengths. They used diverse body parts to measure the length, such as the hand span, cubit, and fathom. The distance between the elbow and the tip of the middle finger is measured in cubits (outstretched). Other length units based on bodily parts include the foot, yard, and pace. However, they are unreliable since body component length varies from person to person. As a result, the necessity for conventional units of measurement became apparent.
Standard units of measurement are units with a defined amount that do not change from person to person or place to place. The metric system, for example, was developed by the French in 1790 and is a set of standard units.
On the other hand, adopting a standard method of measuring did not address the problem. People in various nations were still utilising separate sets of standard units for measuring in such a setting. As a result, scientists worldwide created a single set of units known as the International System of Units to ensure worldwide consistency (also known as SI Units). The SI Units was implemented in 1960, and it has made communication between scientists from various nations much simpler since then.
The SI Unit of length is the metre. Other frequent length units are the millimetre (mm), centimetre (cm), and kilometre (km).
One kilometre (km) is split into 1000 equal parts, each referred to as a metre (m). One metre is split into 100 equal divisions, each referred to as a centimetre (cm), which is further subdivided into ten equal divisions, each referred to as a millimetre (mm).
Thus, 1 km = 1000 m, 1 m = 100 cm and 1 cm = 10 mm.
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