All kinds of shapes surround us. Each figure is composed of straight or curved lines of varying lengths and inclined at different angles. Hence, we must draw them using a set of geometrical tools, such as:
Ruler: The ruler's straight edge can be used to draw line segments of various lengths.
Compass: This is used to mark off equal lengths without measuring them.
Divider: This is used to compare lengths.
Set-Squares: This is used to draw perpendicular and parallel lines.
Protractor: This is used to draw and measure angles.
In this chapter, we will learn to draw different geometrical figures using the ruler and compass mostly. To achieve better results:
Draw thin lines and mark points lightly.
Maintain instruments with sharp tips and fine edges.
In this chapter, we shall discuss:
Circle
Line Segment
To construct a copy of a given line segment
Perpendicular segments
Perpendicular to a line through a point on it (using a compass and a scale)
Perpendicular to a line through a point not on it (using a compass and ruler)
Perpendicular bisector of a line segment (using a compass and ruler)
5. Angles
Angles of specific measures
Angle bisector
Construction of a copy of an angle of unknown measure
6. Some angles of special measures
The circle is perhaps one of the most common shapes around us. Every point on a circle is at the same distance from the centre of the circle. That distance is called its radius. Examples of a circle include a wheel, ring, bangle, etc.
To construct a circle of a given radius using a compass, follow these steps:
Open the compass along the scale to measure a radius of x cm.
Mark a point with a pencil where you want the centre of your circle to be.
Place the pointer of the compass there. Name it O.
Turn the compass through a full arc swing to draw the circle. Make sure you complete the movement in one instant.
NCERT Problem 1: Draw a circle of radius 3.2 cm.
Solution: Follow the steps mentioned above. Take the radius as 3.2 cm and draw the circle. Mark the centre as O. You'll have your required figure.
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