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Chapter 1 – Matter

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Matter is described as something that has mass and occupies space. Did you know everything around you is matter? From your favourite juice to the bed you love sleeping on all day. A matter consists of millions of tiny particles. To the human eye, these particles are undetectable. There are many states, also known as phases, in which matter may occur. Solid, liquid, and gas are the three most popular states. Let us learn more about Matter in detail!

A state of matter is one of the many forms that various states of matter may take. In daily life, four phases of matter are visible: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. 

  • Solid
    Solids are described by their molecules being closely linked together. Matter in the solid state is usually denser than matter in the liquid state. Solids maintain their form and have an unchanging volume. A crystalline solid is one kind of solid.
  • Liquid
    Liquids are composed of molecules that can freely stream past one another. Although liquids can expand and compress at varying temperatures and pressures, these variations are often minute, and for the most part, liquids can be believed to have a constant volume. A liquid’s molecules will flow past one another.
  • Gas
    Gases are composed of molecules that can freely pass through one another. They carry on the form and volume of their vessel and extend and contract quite naturally. A gas’s critical properties involve friction, temperature, and volume. Indeed, these quantities are adequate to fully characterize an ideal gas’s macroscopic state.
  • Plasma
    Plasma is a gas that has been very hot to the point that the electrons have escaped from the atoms, leaving positive ions floating in an ocean of electrons. Due to the fact that the plasma has an equivalent amount of positive and negative charges, it is called quasi-neutral, but the isolation and local clustering of charges allows the plasma to behave somewhat differently from normal gas. Electric and magnetic forces induce a strong effect on plasma.
    These fields do not have to be external; when the charges in the plasma shift, they generate electric and magnetic fields that intersect each other.

When matter travels from one state to another, adding or withdrawing energy creates a physical transition. When you apply heat energy to freshwater, it turns into steam or vapour. When you take the energy out of liquid water, it turns into ice (a solid). Motion and pressure may also induce physical changes.

 

  1. Melting and Freezing
    Melting is the transformation of a solid into a liquid state. The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it transforms into a liquid. Freezing is the transformation of molten water into solid ice. The freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid transforms into a solid.
  2. Vaporization
    The mechanism by which a liquid state transforms into a vapour state is known as vaporization. If the temperature rises, the kinetic energy rises as well. The force of attraction among molecules decreases as kinetic energy rises.
    As a consequence, they escape in the nature of vapours into the environment. The vaporization mechanism is called boiling when conditions cause the creation of vapour bubbles inside a liquid. Sublimation is the process of converting a solid to a gas directly.
  3. Evaporation
    Evaporation is the transformation from a liquid to a gaseous state just below the boiling point of a substance or compound; in particular, it is the mechanism by which the liquid phase reaches the atmosphere as water vapour.
  4. Condensation and Deposition
    When a gas lacks energy and condenses to become a liquid, it is called condensation. Water vapour, for example, condenses into liquid water.
    When a gas transitions immediately into a solid without passing into the liquid process, this is known as a deposition. When the air around a solid, such as a blade of grass, is colder than the surrounding air, water vapour condenses into ice or snow.
  5. Fusion
    The electron, proton, and neutron are the most common material particles. Atoms are made up of combinations of these particles. Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei fuse to produce new atomic nuclei and subatomic particles. The mass difference between reactants and products results in the release or absorption of energy.

In this chapter, we learned about the basics of matter. We studied the different states of matter and how matter undergoes a phase change in accordance with temperature and pressure. We can further use this knowledge and study the Kinetic theory of matter.

  1. According to physics, what is the matter?
    Matter is an inert material that fills physical space. According to contemporary science, matter is composed of a variety of different forms of particles, each with its own mass and scale.
  2. What are the four different forms of matter?
    Matter exists in four normal states: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma.
  3. Is air matter or not?
    Air is matter. It has mass, occupies volume, and is made of particles that are too tiny and spaced out to be seen.
  4. Is heat matter?
    Heat is a source of energy and is not a form of matter due to the lack of atoms or molecules.
  5. What are matter’s properties?
    The properties of matter include all quantifiable characteristics of an element, including its density, colour, weight, volume, distance, malleability, melting point, stiffness, odour, and temperature.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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