The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
A human’s body has many glands in different parts of the body that produce different secretions like saliva, oil, hormones, etc. Broadly, these glands are divided into two categories:
Hormones are chemicals that are synthesised and created by the specific glands to regulate the activities of certain cells and organs of the body. The hormones control various physiological and psychological functions of your body.
Different types of glands
|Thyroid||Neck||Thyroid hormones||It controls the rate of metabolism of the body.|
|Adrenal||Kidneys||They produce over 150 kinds of hormones. The most common is adrenaline.||Adrenaline helps the body to fight against difficult situations.|
|Pancreas||Stomach||Digestive enzymes, insulin and glucagon.||Insulin helps in controlling the blood glucose level, and glucagon helps in controlling the glucose level.|
|Pituitary (Master gland)||Skull||Along with controlling other hormones, it secretes the Prolactin hormone.||It controls all the glands and flow of hormones in the body. Prolactin hormones stimulate the production of milk.|
Adolescence is the age when a child reaches puberty. It occurs between the age of 10 to 19. The adolescence and accompanying changes bring about a change both physically and mentally for the child.
The children should be taught about personal hygiene as they slowly slide towards puberty. If proper hygiene is not maintained, it can lead to various complications in the future for them.
They should take a balanced diet as they are in the growing stage. Girls should eat food rich in iron for the formation of RBC in their blood cells. Children should avoid drugs, alcohol, and smoking, as this is the age when they get influenced easily. Girls should maintain proper hygiene during menstruation by using proper sanitary pads.
Exercise daily to stay fit. Yoga, meditation, proper time management for your daily activities, pursuing your hobbies, investing time in sports, and reading would help a child stay fit and slide smoothly into puberty.
The circulatory system in the human body comprises arteries, veins, and capillaries. The heart pumps blood through it to the entire body. The circulatory system comprises the heart, blood, blood vessels, and lymphatic systems.
The heart is in between the lungs in the thoracic cavity, situated slightly left of the breastbone. The primary function of a heart is to pump blood to all parts of the body and ensure normal blood pressure.
The heart is divided into two broad parts.
Blood vessels are the medium through which blood travels to all parts of the body. The heart has many kinds of vessels which form a network.
The flow of blood in the human body is interesting. The blood circulates in the heart two times and hence is known as double circulation. The main advantage of double circulation is that every part of the body gets a steady supply of oxygenated blood and does not mix up with deoxygenated blood.
Blood groups are the grouping done for the blood based on the presence or absence of antigenic substances on the surface of RBC. There are various kinds of groups.
|A+||A+, A-, O+, O-||A+, AB+|
|A-||A-, O-||A+, A-, AB+, AB-|
|AB+||All body articles||AB+|
|AB-||AB-, A-, B-, O-||AB+, AB-|
|B+||B+, B-, O+, O-||B+, AB+|
|B-||B-, O-||B+, B-, AB+, AB-|
|O+||O+, O-||O+, A+, B+, AB+|
|O-||O-||All body types|
The nervous system is a complex network of neurons that carry messages. The complexity of it increases as you move towards higher animals. In the body of a human, the nervous system combines all the activities of the organs based on their stimuli. This system is the combination of nerves, sensory organs, the spinal cord, and the brain.
Central Nervous system
This is the central processing unit of the body and comprises the brain and spinal cord.
The brain is the most important organ of the body. It controls the entire nervous system and helps in discovering new things or remembering old things. It also helps you to decide, understand and memorise things. The human brain has three major parts.
The spinal cord is a bundle of cylindrical nerve fibres and tissues inside the spine that connects to the entire body. It is found inside the vertebral column, surrounded by meninges. It is associated with reflex actions and the transferring of nerve impulses to and from the brain.
These are fine thread-like structures that start from the brain and spinal cord. It transmits messages all over the body. There are three types of nerves:
The human body is a complex machine with many systems running efficiently so that the body works properly. When one of the systems fails to work, the body does not operate properly.