The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
The first theory on the structure of the atom was given by John Dalton in the 1800s. The research on the structure of an atom gave us a lot of information about various chemical reactions and physical characteristics of an atom. You might have come across this simple observation that atoms exist all around in the universe and undergo various chemical reactions. To understand them, we need to know the atomic structure and its properties.
The structure of atoms around us comprises a systematic collection of nuclear particles. The negatively charged particles around the nucleus are called electrons. The neutrons and protons together constitute the nucleus of an atom. The electrons of the atom always surround this nucleus.
We can also define the atomic number of an atom as the total number of protons present in its specific nucleus. Neutral atoms are atoms that have an equal number of electrons and protons in them. Every atom gains or loses its electrons to increase its stability. The atoms that are of various elements have a different atomic structure. Every atom of an additional component has a different number of electrons and protons.
In earlier centuries, various scientists tried to work on the atomic structure. They attempted this study with the help of various atomic models. Every model has different advantages and disadvantages. The most appropriate atomic model was proposed by John Dalton, Niels Bohr, J.J. Thompson, and Ernest Rutherford.
John Dalton was an English chemist. He proposed that all the matter around us is composed of atoms. He also suggested that these atoms are indivisible as well as indestructible. According to Dalton, the same elements are identical, whereas the atoms of different elements are not the same in physical and chemical properties.
Daltons’ atomic theory also brought up laws of mass conservation, multiple proportions, and reciprocal proportions.
In the 1900s, Sir Joseph John Thomson presented his atomic structure model. He also won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of negatively charged particles called electrons with these experiments. He worked on the investigation known as the experiment of cathode rays.
According to the given constraints, all the electrons are supposed to fill in the s, p, d, f orbitals:
The atomic structure comprises the nucleus, protons, and neutrons. An atom also includes negatively charged particles called electrons which always revolve around the nucleus. Democritus was the first man who brought up the concept of atomic structure and quantum mechanics. He proposed for the first time that matter comprises atoms. Since then, many atomic models were proposed, leading to the discovery of subatomic particles and their properties.