The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
Allotropy is the property of an entity to reside in several physical states. Carbon can be divided into two types of allotropes:
One of the most abundant elements we see around us is carbon, which has an atomic number of 6 and is denoted by the letter ‘C’ in the periodic table. Carbon exhibits allotropy. Its allotropes may be amorphous or crystalline (diamond, graphite).
The carbon atoms are arranged in a diamond cubic crystal lattice in diamonds, an allotrope of carbon. A diamond has the best thermal conductivity and strength among all naturally occurring materials. A diamond’s properties make it valuable, and industrial cutting and polishing of diamonds are possible.
Diamond has many uses:
Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless, and incombustible gas formed when carbon is oxidized. At ambient temperatures and pressures, carbon dioxide exists as a colourless, odourless substance. Nontoxic and noncombustible to a large extent, it is heavier than air and can induce asphyxiation due to air displacement. It is water-soluble, and a mild acid called carbonic acid is produced. The container can shatter violently and rocket if exposed to heat or fire for extended periods. It is used to keep food frozen, monitor chemical reactions, and extinguish fires.
Carbon dioxide is a one-carbon product with the formula CO2, where the carbon atoms are joined by a double bond on each oxygen atom. Under normal conditions, it is a colourless, odourless gas emitted during respiration by all animals, fungi, and microorganisms that consume living or decaying plants directly or indirectly. It acts as a solvent, a vasodilator, an anesthetic, a greenhouse gas, a human metabolite, a food propellant, a refrigerant, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite, and a mouse metabolite. It is a one-carbon alloy, often a gas molecular entity and carbon oxide.
Acidic substances have a sour or sharp flavour. Lemonade has a strong acidic flavour, particularly if it is made without sugar. Citrus fruits have a characteristically acidic taste, and they are acidic in the analytical sense as well. In chemistry, acidic compounds have a lower pH than bases, which have a higher pH. Acidic compounds contain different acids and vinegar.
Solids, liquids, and gases are the three states of matter. Solids exist in two states: amorphous and crystalline. The particles are organized in a geometrical pattern that is either definite or indefinite. Let’s look at how they are different from each other.
The particles in crystalline solids are organized in a three-dimensional order. Intermolecular forces are identical to the particles. They are anisotropic and have a sharp melting point. They are called real solids. Diamond, for example, is made up of benzoic acid.
Diamond applications include:
They are used to make exquisite jewellery.
Amorphous solids are shapeless. The term amorphous comes from the Greek language. The solid particles are arranged in an irregular pattern. There are variations in intermolecular forces. The size of particles also differs. They have an amorphous geometric form. Supercooled liquids are another name for them. They are both isotropic. Glass, for example, is formed of naphthalene.
Glass applications include:
It is commonly used in building construction.
Allotropy refers to the appearance of a chemical substance in two or more ways, each of which varies in the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids or the existence of molecules with varying numbers of atoms.
In this chapter, we learned about carbon and its compounds. We learned about allotropes and types of solids.