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Chapter 3 – Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Elements are the primary chemical substances of which all atoms are precisely the same. Compounds are chemical compounds consisting of two or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio. When two or more compounds combine without chemical alteration, the resultant compound is a Mixture in chemistry.

When two or more elements are chemically combined in a fixed mass ratio, the result is known as a compound. Compounds are substances consisting of two or more distinct types of elements in their atoms’ fixed ratio. When the elements are combined, specific individual properties are missing, and the newly created compound has new properties.

Chemical formula: The chemical formula describes the compounds. The chemical formula is a symbolic description of the quantities of atoms that compose a chemical complex. Water’s chemical formula is H2O, which indicates that two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom fused to form one H2O molecule.

Types of Compounds: Compounds are divided into two groups, molecular compounds and salts. In molecular products, the molecule is bound by covalent bonds. It is preserved in salts along with ion bonds. These are the two forms of bonds from which each compound is formed.

Examples of Compounds: Examples of compounds include hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), water (H2O), etc. You could see the water’s chemical composition, which states it has two atoms of hydrogen mixed with one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen peroxide, and two atoms of oxygen. Similarly, table salt (NaCl) with one sodium atom and one chlorine atom would be an example of salt.

An element is a kind of atom having a similar number of protons in its atomic nucleus. An element’s atoms can have different neutron numbers, but they have the same number of protons, and therefore specific masses.

Isotopes: When atoms of the same component have differing neutron ratios, they are known as isotopes. There are 118 elements, the first 94 of which are naturally occurring, and the other 24 are synthetic elements.

Elements are complete chemical elements that belong to a single entry in the current periodic table. Items consist of only one kind of particle. They cannot be broken down into smaller pieces, and they will exist either as electrons or as atoms or as molecules. Elements are represented by symbols assigned to the IUPAC. E.g., oxygen is O; aluminium is Al, etc.

The product of the synthesis of compounds does not lose its uniqueness, nor are they chemically mixed. A mixture is a final result of mechanically combining or separating chemical components such as elements and compounds.

  • Ability to Breakdown
    • Elements: Chemical reactions cannot separate elements into simpler compounds.
    • Compounds: A material may be isolated by chemical methods/reactions into simplified compounds.
  • Representation
    • Elements: An element is represented using symbols.
    • Compounds: The compounds are shown using their chemical composition, which describes the symbols of their building elements and the number of atoms of the element in a single particle of the substance.
  • Types
    • Elements: There are approximately 117 discovered and observed elements categorized as metal, non-metal, or metalloid.
    • Compounds: A large, almost infinite number of chemical substances can be made. Compounds are classified as chemical materials, ion substances, intermetallic compounds, and structures.
  • Composition
    • Elements: Elements have a single type of atom. An atom has the same number of protons in the nucleus.
    • Compounds: It has various fixed-ratio elements organized in a given manner by chemical bonds. Compounds only contain one kind of molecule. The elements that make up the complex are chemically mixed.
  • Examples
    • Elements: Hydrogen (H), Sodium (Na), Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), gold (Au), etc.
    • Compounds: Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), Sodium chloride (NaCl), Water (H2O), etc.
    • Heterogeneous Mixture: A heterogeneous mixture is sand mixed with salt, for example. Heterogeneous mixtures have differing properties and compositions in different mixture areas, implying that the properties are not identical in the mix. Air, gasoline, and water are examples of heterogeneous mixtures.
    • Homogeneous Mixture: The most famous example of a homogeneous mixture is sugar and water. Homogeneous mixtures are those that have the same properties and combinations in their bulk. Homogeneous mixtures include alloys, salt and water, alcohol in water, and so on.

Elements are characterized by their name, symbol, atomic number, melting point, boiling point, density, and ionization energy. In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to their atomic number and organized according to identical chemical properties and represented by their symbols.

An element has just one kind of atom; compounds have more than one. All elements and compounds make up all substances; they vary from mixtures when different substances are mixed; however, not by atomic bonds.

These were the critical distinctions between elements, mixtures and compounds that are important not just for examinations but also for competitive examinations. Students must check more examples to know their detailed properties.

  1. What does the word “compound” mean?
    A compound is a substance formed by the chemical bonding of two or more chemical elements. Covalent bonds and ionic bonds are two common forms of bonds that hold elements in a compound together. In any compound, the elements are still found in fixed ratios.
  2. Is pure material considered an element?
    A pure material is a common material that cannot be broken down into different categories of substances. Elements include carbon, silver, hydrogen, oxygen, gold, and iron. Any unit is made up of just one atom type.
  3. What exactly is the distinction between an element, a compound, and a mixture?
    A material made up of just one kind of atom. A compound is a substance made up of more than one type of bound atom. A mixture is a combination of two or more boundless materials or compounds, each of which retains its own characteristics.
  4. What are the two types of mixture classifications?
    Mixtures are of two types: homogeneous and heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is one in which the distribution of its components is uniformly combined.
  5. What is the difference between an atom element compound and a mixture?
    A single atom has the same number of electrons and protons, while most atoms have at least the same numbers of neutrons as protons. The element is a substance that is composed of one kind of atom. A mixture is a structure made up of two or more different elements that are chemically linked together.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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