Syllabus covered in the MSVgo app

Download MSVgo app now!

Chapter 9 – Carbon and its Compounds

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Carbon compounds can be found in everything, from the food we consume, the garments we wear to the pencil lead used to write. Carbon has an atomic number of 6 and a density of 12.01gmol-1. Carbon belongs to the 14th category of elements. It is the seventeenth most abundant element on the planet. It is seen in the form of coal and graphite. It can be free or combined. In its combined form, it exists as metal carbonates, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide gas. As it interacts with other components, including dihydrogen, dioxygen, chlorine, and sulfur, it produces several materials from tissues to drugs.

Allotropy is the property of an entity to reside in several physical states. Carbon can be divided into two types of allotropes: 

  • Allotropes with Amorphous Carbon 
  • Allotropes with Crystalline Carbon

One of the most abundant elements we see around us is carbon, which has an atomic number of 6 and is denoted by the letter ‘C’ in the periodic table. Carbon exhibits allotropy. Its allotropes may be amorphous or crystalline (diamond, graphite).

The carbon atoms are arranged in a diamond cubic crystal lattice in diamonds, an allotrope of carbon. A diamond has the best thermal conductivity and strength among all naturally occurring materials. A diamond’s properties make it valuable, and industrial cutting and polishing of diamonds are possible. 

Diamond has many uses:

  • Diamonds are used in jewellery
  • Diamonds are used in beauty products

Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless, and incombustible gas formed when carbon is oxidized. At ambient temperatures and pressures, carbon dioxide exists as a colourless, odourless substance. Nontoxic and noncombustible to a large extent, it is heavier than air and can induce asphyxiation due to air displacement. It is water-soluble, and a mild acid called carbonic acid is produced. The container can shatter violently and rocket if exposed to heat or fire for extended periods. It is used to keep food frozen, monitor chemical reactions, and extinguish fires.

Carbon dioxide is a one-carbon product with the formula CO2, where the carbon atoms are joined by a double bond on each oxygen atom. Under normal conditions, it is a colourless, odourless gas emitted during respiration by all animals, fungi, and microorganisms that consume living or decaying plants directly or indirectly. It acts as a solvent, a vasodilator, an anesthetic, a greenhouse gas, a human metabolite, a food propellant, a refrigerant, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite, and a mouse metabolite. It is a one-carbon alloy, often a gas molecular entity and carbon oxide.

Acidic substances have a sour or sharp flavour. Lemonade has a strong acidic flavour, particularly if it is made without sugar. Citrus fruits have a characteristically acidic taste, and they are acidic in the analytical sense as well. In chemistry, acidic compounds have a lower pH than bases, which have a higher pH. Acidic compounds contain different acids and vinegar.

Solids, liquids, and gases are the three states of matter. Solids exist in two states: amorphous and crystalline. The particles are organized in a geometrical pattern that is either definite or indefinite. Let’s look at how they are different from each other.

The particles in crystalline solids are organized in a three-dimensional order. Intermolecular forces are identical to the particles. They are anisotropic and have a sharp melting point. They are called real solids. Diamond, for example, is made up of benzoic acid. 

Diamond applications include:

They are used to make exquisite jewellery.

Amorphous solids are shapeless. The term amorphous comes from the Greek language. The solid particles are arranged in an irregular pattern. There are variations in intermolecular forces. The size of particles also differs. They have an amorphous geometric form. Supercooled liquids are another name for them. They are both isotropic. Glass, for example, is formed of naphthalene. 

Glass applications include: 

It is commonly used in building construction.

Allotropy refers to the appearance of a chemical substance in two or more ways, each of which varies in the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids or the existence of molecules with varying numbers of atoms.

In this chapter, we learned about carbon and its compounds. We learned about allotropes and types of solids.

  1. What are the various forms of carbon compounds?
    Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid are the four main organic compounds found in all living organisms.
  2. What characteristics do carbon compounds have?
    Carbon has the peculiar property of creating long chains, branches, and near structures by forming direct bonds between atoms of the same compound. This is called catenation.
  3. What is the total number of carbon compounds?
    In chemical literature, over one million carbon compounds have been identified.
  4. What is the most abrasive carbon form?
    The hardest form of carbon is diamond.
  5. What is the molecular formula for carbon?

At MSVgo, we give you simple video lessons to learn and understand the essential distinction between carbon and its compounds. You can explore over 6,000 videos to understand math and science topics with real-life examples. Go ahead, try it now!

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
Please switch to portrait mode
for the best experience.
Click to open Popup