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Chapter 2 – Reproduction in Plants and Animals

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


The mechanism of reproducing offspring that are physically or genetically identical to the parent organism is known as reproduction in plants and animals. To recreate is to reproduce. It is a biological mechanism through which an individual reproduces an identical offspring, as you must already be aware that humans give birth to babies, dogs give birth to puppies, and plants also reproduce. Reproduction allows and promotes the survival of organisms from generation to generation. It is the most important aspect of life on the planet. 

Let us understand this concept in detail, and we’ll soon be able to understand how plants and animals reproduce.

There are two forms of reproduction:

  • Asexual reproduction 
  • Sexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is described as a form of reproduction in which only one organism produces a new organism. 

Since asexual reproduction does not require gamete fusion, the offspring formed are genetically similar to their parents. Asexual replication produces fewer complex species in nature. Unicellular species use this method of reproduction often. 

The mechanism requires fast demographic development and does not necessitate the presence of a mate. On the other hand, the lack of genetic variation leaves animals more vulnerable to pathogens and nutritional shortages. 

Asexual replication is further subdivided into the following categories: 

  • Binary Fission
    The cell divides into two halves, each bearing a copy of the parent cell’s DNA. Amoeba, for example.
  • Budding
    A tiny bud-like outgrowth gives birth to a new person in this case. When it is completely developed, the outgrowth stays connected to the organism. It separates from the rest of the body and exists as a separate being. Hydra, for example.
  • Fragmentation
    The parent organism divides into many sections, each of which develops into a new entity. Planaria, for example.
  • Sporogenesis
    A new organism emerges from the spores in this form of reproduction. They can be grown without fertilisation and dispersed by wind and animals.

Sexual and asexual reproduction is also possible in plants. The plurality of flowering plants, on the other hand, reproduce sexually. Flowers contain both male and female gametes, making them the sexual component of the plant. Plants use flowers to reproduce sexually. The whole flower is usually made up of four parts: 

  • Petals 
  • Sepals  
  • Stamens are the male sex organs (male reproductive part) 
  • Carpel/Pistil is the female sex organs (female reproductive part) 

Either of a stamen or a pistil or both may be found in flower. A flower may be either unisexual or bisexual based on this. A bisexual flower, such as a rose or a China rose, is made up of all four sections listed above. Plants like papaya and cucumber, on the other hand, contain only unisexual flowers. Flowers that contain stamen are male, and the ones that contain pistil are female.

  • Binary Fission
    Binary fission is an asexual reproduction method found mostly in prokaryotes and a few single-celled eukaryotes. The parent cell is divided into two new daughter cells in this form of asexual reproduction. The separation and replication of the parent’s genetic matter into two sections occurs during this period. Each daughter cell receives one copy of its parent’s DNA in this stage.
    In prokaryotic species, it is the most common mode of reproduction. Binary fusion happens in the absence of the development of a spindle apparatus in the cell. The single DNA molecule starts replication and then binds each copy to different cell membrane sections in this step. The initial (actual) and replicated chromosomes separate when the cell begins to be pulled apart.
  • Fragmentation
    The most common method of asexual reproduction is fragmentation. Plants use fragmentation as a method of vegetative reproduction. When a rooted shoot separates from the main group, it is called fragmentation. There are a variety of other pathways in plants. There are a number of other natural fragmentation processes in plants that have been discovered.
  • Spore Formation
    Spore Formation is an Asexual Reproduction process. Sporangia are sacs that store a large number of spores. Sporangia produce minute single-celled, thin or thick-walled structures known as spores when they burst. They develop into a new Plant if the conditions are correct.
    Spore reproduction is an asexual form of reproduction. The sporangia are globular structures that resemble knobs. They live at the tip of hyphae, which are thread-like constructs. They are dispersive, meaning that rain, wind, or insects disperse them.

Plants use their leaves, branches, and stems for vegetative propagation, which is an asexual mode of reproduction. This may happen as a result of plant fragmentation and recovery of particular vegetative sections.

Pollination is the process of extracting pollen grains from the male part of a flower, the anther, and transferring them to the flower’s female part, the stigma. Pollen grains must be transported from the same genus of the flower by the Culture Agents Of Pollination Main for pollination to be functional.

Tissue culture is a method for cultivating and growing plant fragments in the laboratory. Organs are sometimes used for tissue culture as well. Broth and agar are the media used to grow the culture. 

Micropropagation is another name for this procedure. It has been shown to help developed countries produce disease-free plants and improve plant yield. A sterile office, greenhouse, skilled personnel, and a nursery are needed.

In this chapter, we learned about the reproductive methods in plants. We learned about the processes and how they occur.

  1. Do strawberries undergo asexual reproduction?
    Strawberries replicate asexually by encouraging plantlets to flourish in the soil at the ends of stolons. 
  2. Name any asexually reproducing plants.
    Ginger, banana, and sugarcane
  3. What are the three different modes of asexual reproduction found in plants?
    Budding, fragmentation, vegetative proliferation, and spore-forming are all examples of asexual reproduction in plants. 
  4. In plants, what are the two major modes of asexual reproduction?
    Vegetative reproduction and apomixis are the two major modes of asexual reproduction in plants. 
  5. What are the two different ways of reproduction?
    Asexual and sexual reproduction are the two forms of reproduction.

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High School Physics

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Middle School Science

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