The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
The movement of electrons from one part of the circuit to another is current electricity.
The difference between the electric charges in a body, especially the imbalance between the negative and positive charges, is static electricity.
Physical means are used to establish the charge imbalance. Contact between solid structures is one of the most common triggers of static electricity. As previously said, protons cannot travel, and the only acceleration of electric charge observed in static electricity is that of electrons. Electrons are kept very loosely in objects, allowing them to be transferred by direct interaction such as rubbing. These charges may accumulate on an object’s surface before they can be released or discharged. A circuit is one way to discharge them, which is just what a lightning strike is.
The electric field generated by stationary charges is known as static electricity. The material’s surface contains several electric charges that combine the static energy on the surface. These static charges may occur on the Earth by interaction with one of the more charged bodies or by the presence of extra ions in the air.
A charge allows matter to generate and undergo electrical and magnetic effects. The fundamental principle behind charge storage is that the system’s overall charge remains conserved.
It can be described as follows:
The theory of conservation of charge states that in an independent unit, the overall electric charge never varies. The irreducible amount of electric charge in the universe, which is equal to the value of positive charge decreased from the value of negative charge, is still conserved.
Conduction is the method of transferring energy from one medium particle to another, but each medium particle remains in its location. Solids, liquids, and gases may all conduct electricity.
The magnetic field equal to the rate of shift of the magnetic field is known as Induction. For a conductor, this concept of induction remains valid. Inductance is another name for Induction. The inductance is expressed by the letter L, and the SI unit of inductance is Henry.
Lightning occurs when there are electrical imbalances between rain clouds and the atmosphere or inside the clouds themselves. The majority of lightning occurs inside the clouds.
Electricity poses several risks, including electric shock, psychological damage, physical burns, neurological damage, and death from Ventricular Fibrillation.
When energy is not adequately regulated or harnessed, it may put those using it in grave danger. The hazards associated with electric power may be categorized into two types: direct and indirect. The direct threat is the harm that the force can do to the human body, such as stopping breathing or heartbeats or causing burns. The harms that may occur to the human body due to anything induced by electric shocks, such as a crash, an accident, or a burn, are among the indirect hazards of electricity.
Abraham Bennet invented the gold-leaf electroscope in 1787, which is more sensitive than other electroscopes. It’s made up of two parallel strips of thin, flexible gold leaf that hangs from a vertical metal rod. The gold leaf is held in a glass container to protect it from air drafts. When a charged item is taken next to it, the gold leaves spread apart into an inverted “V.”
When the positive terminal of one battery is attached to the negative terminal of the next cell, a group of batteries is considered to be connected in sequence. The algebraic number of all individual cells linked in series is the battery’s total emf.
If E is the battery’s total emf multiplied by the number of batteries, then:
E = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 +………..+ En
Similarly, since r1, r2, and r3 are the internal resistances of individual cells, the battery’s internal resistance is proportional to the total of the individual cells’ internal resistances.
r = r1 + r2 + r3 +…..+ rn.