# Chapter 15 – Waves

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Here’s a Simple Introduction to Waves

Waves is a significant chapter of physics. It is challenging but it’s easier once you understand the concepts. We hope this article helps you grasp the knowledge and concepts.
Waves in Physics talks about a cause of disturbance in a medium. This disturbance leads to a flow of energy where the particles do not move. Waves also involve a periodic and repetitive movement of energy from point A to point B. You are surrounded by different types of waves in your everyday life. We will help you elucidate on the different wave types and their properties.

#### Properties of Waves

Waves can be characterized by several properties. A wave is a physical identity which has frequency, height, etc. These properties will define the kind of wave. Some of the properties include:

1. Amplitude

Amplitude is the height of the wave. Wave transports energy in patterns and height. You can measure the same in metres, and that is known as the amplitude of the wave. Amplitude is directly related to the energy which is carried on by a wave.

2. Wavelength

Wavelength refers to the distance between two successive peaks. You can call it a distance between two identical points when adjacent cycles of wave crests are taken into consideration. Wavelength being a distance can also be measured in metres.

3. Period

Period refers to the time taken by a particle travelling in a medium to cover one complete cycle of vibration. This property is measured in seconds. You can also use minutes to gauge the period of a wave.

4. Frequency

Understanding the frequency of a wave is very important. It talks about the number of waves that pass through a particular point at a particular time. The SI unit of frequency is Hertz, denoted by Hz.

There is an inverse relationship between the period and the frequency of a particular wave.

Period = 1/ Frequency

5. Speed

The speed of the wave shows how fast a particle moves on the wave at a particular time interval. Speed of a wave is measured in metres/seconds.

The wave speed formula: v (speed) = Wavelength / Period

The result would be in metre/second.

#### Types of Waves

Waves are of different types. You can categorise waves on the basis of their characteristics and also based on the medium through which they travel. Some of  the popular kinds of waves are explained below:

a. Transverse Waves

In these waves, the particles moving through the waves oscillate at right angles to the direction in which propagation of waves takes place. These waves follow a cyclical pattern when it comes to movements. A simple experiment would be to drop a pebble in water, the ripples that form with it is an example of Transverse waves.

b. Longitudinal Wave

In the case of longitudinal waves, the particles oscillate in the direction in which the wave propagates. A longitudinal wave is formed by a series of rarefactions and compressions. In the case of compression, the density and pressure reach a maximum point. These waves can also propagate if they are travelling through a gaseous medium. These waves are of different kinds. Some of the longitudinal waves include sound waves, P-type earthquake waves, compression waves, etc.

c. Electromagnetic Waves

These waves come into play if there is a generation of an electric as well as a magnetic field. The waves move perpendicularly and are also perpendicular to each other. Also, these ways do not need a medium of propagation. They can exist naturally and are also transverse in nature. These waves have momentum and can be easily polarised. They also do not deflect if they encounter an electric or a magnetic field.

d. Mechanical Waves

These waves need a medium to propagate themselves. The best example for a mechanical wave would be a water wave as they can only propagate themselves in water. Every time you speak, you produce mechanical waves as sound waves as they propagate through the air as a medium.

e. Matter Waves

These waves depict the nature of all kinds of matter. They waves are quite small as compared to the other kinds of waves. Also, they are produced in the form of particles or electrons. The frequency of these waves depends on the kinetic energy that these waves carry.

There are other kinds of waves too. Some of these have a dual nature. Surface waves possess the characteristics of both mechanical and electromagnetic waves. Elastic waves are the waves produced by an elastic body. In the case of elastic waves, the particles tend to come back to their original position.

#### FAQs

1. What are waves in physics?

Waves are patterns that tend to move without the actual flow of energy from point A to B. Waves are usually called patterns of disturbances.

2. What are waves and types of waves?

Waves are a medium through which the energy is transported without the actual matter being moved. It can also be called a disturbance that passes through a medium. It transports energy from one location or points to the other point.

Some common types of waves are as follows:

a. Transverse Waves

b. Longitudinal Waves

c. Electromagnetic Waves

d. Mechanical Waves

e. Matter Waves

f.  Electromagnetic Waves

3. What are the properties of waves?

Some of the major properties of waves include:

a. Amplitude

b. Wavelength

c. Period

d. Frequency

e. Speed

You will find that these properties are interrelated too.

4. What are the 10 types of waves?

The 10 types of waves are:

a. Electromagnetic waves

b. Gravitational waves

c. Quantum Mechanical waves

d. Mechanical waves

e. Transverse waves

f. Longitudinal waves

g. Transverse waves

h. Matter waves

i. Sine waves

Understanding the concept and the types of waves is vital to understand the nuances of Physics and its topics. A lot of other concepts are also dependent on the concept of waves. MSVgo app is a helpful platform that teaches concepts via videos on waves and its associated concepts. You can check out the app to further your understanding about any topic you want to pursue.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electron Beams and Radioactivity
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Algebra – Quadratic Equations
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Quadrilaterals
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Chemistry in Your Life
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Light, Shadows And Reflections
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time
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