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Chapter 4 – Plant physiology

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Have you ever conjectured how water gets transported at the top of the trees? Or how the molecule moves in a plant? Today, plant physiology is the most cardinal branch that deals with the nature and the structure of plants. 

Knowing how the plant grows from the seed to a big tree, it is when plant physiology comes into play. If you want to have deeper insights into plant physiology, this detailed article will help you to get in-depth knowledge about the flora world.

Plant physiology deals with how the different parts of the plant like leaves, stems, roots, and phloem works and function collectively. Plant physiology manages distinctive plant structures and their working. It empowers dissecting measures in plants, to be specific – photosynthesis, mineral nourishment, breath, transportation in plants, and eventually plant improvement and development, which are characteristics shown by living substances.

All plants have a unique vascular system that transports nutrients, sugar, and water in all parts. The system consists of – 

  • Xylem 
  • Phloem

Usually, the process of transporting food to a plant is multi-dimensional, which means it occurs through diffusion. For physiological activities, water has a vital role to play. Plant–water relation is an evergreen topic that needs to comprehend the concept better.

As you know, no plant can grow with minerals as it acts as nutrition for them. Mineral nutrition helps in identifying the basic elements for plant growth and development. Macro and micronutrients in plants help in the maintenance of enzyme level and osmotic presence. During this process, nitrogen-fixing also arises in plants. It is through this process that plants accumulate nitrogen from the soil for protein synthesis.

As a biology enthusiast, you must have imagined how photosynthesis in higher plants takes place? It is through chloroplasts using four pigments. When energy is extricated from oxidizable substances and gets stored in bonds, it is called phosphorylation. Since plants make their own food, that’s why they are called autotrophs.

Now, as you know how plants acquire their food through photosynthesis, cellular respiration in plants results in the formation of energy that involves glycolysis. Later, energy is utilized through the following steps – electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation.

Another pivotal part of respiration in plants is the respiratory quotient. The respiratory quotient (RQ) quantifies the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide to that of oxygen used.

Do you know that plants grow throughout their life, unlike humans? It is due to the meristematic tissues in plants. Usually, plant growth can be restrained by the enlargement in their number, length, area, and volume. There are three phases of a plant’s growth –

  • Meristematic stage – Here, the growth of the plant can be seen in the roots and shoots that are accompanied by a thin cellulosic cell wall, also known as the formative stage of plant growth.   
  • Elongation stage – When a plant is lengthened, and increased vacuolation can be witnessed. It is called the elongation stage of the plant. 
  • Maturation stage– This stage can be characterized by the deposition of the plant vascular body. All the cells have attained maturity and get protoplasmic. 

Development is part of plant growth, but it also includes the lifecycle of the plant from germination to senescence. 

The two factors are responsible for plant growth and development – 

  • Intrinsic factors include genetic, regulators, and hormonal control 

Extrinsic factors include water, nutrients, and oxygen, etc.

  1. What is the meaning of plant physiology?
    Plant physiology is a sub-discipline branch of botany that deals with the functions of plants. In a nutshell, it is the in-depth study of plant morphology, plant ecology interactions with the environment, phytochemistry, cell biology, genetics, biophysics, and molecular biology. It examines and analyses photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, plant hormone functions.
  2. Who is the father of plant physiology?
    Julius Sachs was the first to advance and build up plant physiology. He hailed as a German botanist from Breslau, Prussian Silesia. He had assumed an essential part throughout the entire existence of herbal science. In 1868, his course reading was the principal wellspring of natural information. He was the person who distinguished the significance of plant physiology and the concept of chlorophyll in plants.
  3. What is the physiological process?
    The cluster of a chemical and physical process like photosynthesis, respiration, seed germination, or transpiration is called a physiological process. Physical and chemical components need to be comprehended before understanding the mechanism of the physiological process.
  4. What is plant physiology and biochemistry?
    It is the reputed journal published by the Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology (FESPB) and the French Society of Plant Biology that produces articles that covers a wide array of topics like physiology, plant-microbe, genetics, and cellular, etc.
  5. Why is plant physiology important?
    Proper knowledge of plant physiology helps to understand the plant mechanism. Plant physiology helps in agriculture by explaining different physiological and morphological changes in plants during the germination period.

Plant physiology covers a wide variety of topics, from interactions between cells and modules to the internal functions of plants. It is helpful in the study of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and edible parts. From the point of view of exams, this chapter plays a paramount role. For better cognizance, you can refer to videos on MSVgo. MSVgo is an app whose core doctrine is to persuade you to understand the conviction with examples or explanatory visualizations or animations.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
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  • Physical world
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  • Thermal properties of matter
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  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
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  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
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  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
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High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
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  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
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  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
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  • Geometry – Area
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  • Sets and Functions
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  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
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  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
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  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
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  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
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  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
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  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
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  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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