Evolution is a complex process of change over time. Natural selection is a key concept in evolutionary biology - it can be summarised as the selection process favouring traits that have led to greater numbers of organisms. Class 12 Biology Evolution proposes to teach about the most important subjects related to Evolution, such as population growth and variation, gene linkage, sexual reproduction and genetic drift. We will also explore the importance of natural selection when trying to understand Evolution. In Evolution NCERT Class 12, we will touch on kinetics and ecosystems. The goal is for students to leave with a complete understanding of how Evolution works and an appreciation for biological diversity. Evolution is a phenomenon occurring on Earth for billions of years. The animal kingdom has constantly been changing and adapting to new environments. As a result, Evolution is distinctly heterogeneous, depending on what species is evolving. For example, the Evolution of sharks might be different from the Evolution of chimpanzees because sharks are animals in which it's hard for any changes to occur, while chimpanzees are animals, and it is relatively easy for changes to occur. Class 12 Biology Evolution highlights different aspects of Evolution, and it includes learning about the process of natural selection, convergent Evolution, divergent Evolution, extinction, and much more. Evolution NCERT Class 12 talks about the process of natural selection and how it occurs.
Biotechnology is a branch of science that combines the study of biology and chemistry. It is a broad field that covers various topics, from organic molecular reactions to harvesting renewable resources from crops, microorganisms, or other sources. Biotechnology has been used in many applications such as diagnosis, designing drugs, manufacturing biosynthetic products, etc. Biotechnology And Its Application NCERT discusses some basic principles in biotechnology and its various applications in day-to-day life.
Furthermore, with the help of Biotechnology And Its Applications Class 12 NCERT Solutions, we will understand the application of Biotechnology in various disciplines. Here we give you some instances of its use in different fields with their respective examples.
Biotechnology And Its Applications Class 12 NCERT Solutions gives us a clear idea of biotechnology by dividing it into five chapters. We will solve different problems using this section based on Biotechnology And Its Applications Solutions. The questions are simple and applicable in day-to-day life. Therefore, solving them will help students understand the concepts better and understand more complicated problems related to biotechnology.
Reproduction In Organisms Class 12 NCERT talks about reproductive health. Reproductive Health includes sexual and reproductive organs and the systems that support them (endocrine, urinary, immune). Reproduction In Organisms Class 12 NCERT will help you understand your body and its working under different circumstances. Furthermore, Reproduction In Organisms Class 12 NCERT Solutions will help students gain more insight into the subject. Reproductive Health is an essential chapter of Reproduction In Organisms Class 12 NCERT. Reproduction In Organisms Class 12 NCERT covers Introduction to Reproductive Systems for exams. It talks about the reproductive system of human beings and its function in detail. Here you will find Introduction to Reproductive Systems notes and NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 to understand the topic better.
Class 12 biology chapter 5 is principles of inheritance and variation. It talks about the various concepts and learnings about the principles of inheritance and variation Ncert solutions. You can find the detailed explanations and solutions for the chapter in this article that will help you with the various aspects of the chapter to understand the anatomy concepts for the class.
The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 biology Chapter 5 helps students access several questions and detailed solutions to the questions, including matching the following, filling in the blanks, descriptive questions answers, and true or false. You can find all the answers in the article to help you ace your Class 12 exam.
The NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 5 principles of inheritance and variation will help you learn about the inheritance process, which includes passing characters from parent to progeny. It will also teach you about the variation and its explanation for inheritance.
Discussion on the Molecular Basis of Inheritance Class 12 NCERT Solutions:
In this chapter for Class 12, we will learn about genes and genetics in detail. Our genes determine much of our biological constitution and determine our chances of developing certain diseases and disorders. It is important to learn about them so as to better understand the human body and by extension, ourselves.
This chapter navigates many subtopics and questions relating to genes and how important they play in heredity and inheritance. The phenomenon of heredity is central to biology, and inheritance is how those genes are passed from generation to generation. We understand how genes influence our traits and characteristics by learning about them.
We’ll also take a closer look at the RNA world or Replication. Transcription and the genetic code are other topics that are also very important to understand and will be explored in this chapter.
Finally, this chapter will also talk about the Human Genome Project. This massive project was undertaken to identify, map, and sequence all of the genes that comprise the human body. We also examine DNA fingerprinting and its importance in forensics and how it aids criminal investigations.
Human health is not something we can afford to take for granted in today's world. With the advancements in technology and all of the new types of diseases popping up, as a result, it is essential to learn as much as we can about what affects our health and how we can maintain it. Human Health And Disease Ncert highlights necessary topics on Human Health and Disease and is also helpful to prepare students with the help of its vivid diagrams, diagrams of human body systems, study notes by chapter. Furthermore, with the help of Human Health And Disease Class 12 Ncert Solutions, a student can find it easy to learn the concepts and make the right choice.
Meta description: Strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 - This chapter deals with the various processes and procedures that will enhance food production and benefit the population.
Topics Covered in the chapter.
Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 is Biotechnology: Principles and Processes. It talks about the various concepts and learnings about the principles and processes of biotechnology. You can find the detailed explanations and solutions for the chapter in this article to help you understand the biotechnology concepts.
The NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 11 help students access several questions and detailed answers that include matching the following, filling in the blanks, descriptive questions answers, and true or false. You can find all the answers in the article to help you ace your Class 12 exam.
It comprises information on the biotechnology principles, process, and their applications. You can learn this easily and quickly by opting for the MVSgo app, where the learning is made simple by following a set structure and offering various science games and assignments, which will make studying fun for you.
NCERT solutions class 12 biology chapter 11 (Biotechnology principles and processes)
Chapter 11 of class 12 Biotechnology principles and processes deal with utilising enzymes and living organisms, which help create new products and methods that are also useful to mankind.
This chapter concentrates on the two vital canons of biotechnology – bioprocess and genetic engineering. It further comprises diverse topics such as restriction enzymes, ligases, polymerase enzymes, host entities, and vectors. In addition, the process of recombinant DNA technology includes several steps such as isolation of DNA fragments, isolation of DNA, extraction of desired products, restriction endonucleases, and more.
The principles of biotechnology also include the origin of replication, plasmid, cloning, antibiotic resistance gene, vectors, ligase and restriction enzymes, etc. that are the necessary steps for genetic modification and essential tools for genetic engineering methods.
Topics of Chapter 11, Class12: Biotechnology Principles and Processes:
The details of the different topics of Biotechnology Principles and Processes NCERT Solutions are as follows:
An ecosystem is the group of food supply, predation, and competition. The chapter Organisms And Populations NCERT highlights the fitness of individuals, measured by their survival, growth rate, and reproductive success. Therefore, the population of a species in a given ecosystem or habitat depends on several factors such as climate, food supply, and predators. A species' population can increase or decrease depending on the aforementioned factors. The population that increases is known as the "expanding population," while the one that decreases is called "contracting population." Organisms And Populations Class 12 NCERT explains how food and energy availability affects the populations of organisms in an ecosystem. The population grows when food and energy are abundant in the environment. On the other hand, it decreases when these resources are scarce within the ecosystem.
Organisms And Populations Class 12 NCERT highlights that habitat includes all biotic and abiotic elements having a specific role in supporting the species present there. It determines where a particular organism lives or spends most of its time during its life cycle. Organisms And Populations NCERT states that population growth can be measured using birth rate, survival rate, age structure, density, and population stability. Population ecology stands for the population dynamics (the changes in the size of the population) of an individual species, population, or community. The study of population dynamics is known as Demography, while ecology is known for its Population Biology. Organisms And Populations Class 12 NCERT is about the Population Dynamics of a natural population for one year.
Class 12 biology chapter 14 discusses the ecosystem. This chapter explains various concepts and learnings about the ecosystem. You can find detailed explanations and solutions for the chapter in this article. It will help you understand the various aspects and concepts of the chapter and prepare for class.
The NCERT Solutions for class 12 biology chapter 14 gives students access to many questions and detailed solutions, including match the following, fill in the blanks, short question answers, and true or false. You can find all the answers in the article that will help you ace your class 12 exam.
The NCERT Solutions will help you learn about the living creatures and their interaction among themselves and with their surroundings in a functional unit. It has details about the structure of the ecosystem, input of productivity, transfer of energy, and output. You will learn about the relationship cycles, chains, webs, and their energy flow within the ecosystem and their interrelationship.
NCERT Solutions class 12 biology chapter 14 (Ecosystem)
The chapter on ecosystem explains the interaction of living and nonliving components with themselves and each other in a physical environment. An ecosystem can be a small pond, a large forest, or even a sea. It is a visualised functional unit of nature. The entire biosphere is regarded as a global ecosystem that is a composite of all local ecosystems on Earth.
The ecosystem is divided into two categories—terrestrial ecosystem and aquatic ecosystem. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of forests, deserts, grasslands, etc. and the aquatic ecosystem consists of ponds, lakes, wetlands, rivers, and many more.
Let us take a look at the most important topics of chapter 14:
The details of topics of NCERT Solutions class 12 biology chapter 14 are as follows:
Ecosystem structure & its structure: The ecosystem is a community where living and nonliving components interact with each other. It is greater in size and is a functional unit of nature. The ecosystem comprises two different components—biotic and abiotic. Their description and functions are explained below.
Types of ecosystems: An ecosystem can be as small as an oasis in a desert, or as big as an ocean. There are mainly two types of ecosystem:
Components of the ecosystem consider the followings aspects:
Productivity: The rate of biomass production is called productivity. It is measured by the amount of biomass or organic matter produced per unit area over time by the plants during the process of photosynthesis. It is expressed in terms of g –2 yr –1 or (kcal m–2) or –1 to compare the productivity of different ecosystems.
Productivity is divided into two parts—gross primary productivity and net primary productivity. Gross primary productivity is the rate of production of organic matter during the process of photosynthesis. Net primary productivity is defined as gross primary productivity minus respiration losses or GPP – R = NPP.
Decomposition: The process of breaking down complex organic matter into inorganic substances like carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients by the decomposers is called decomposition. The raw material for decomposition consists of dead remains of animals, dead plants such as leaves, flowers, bark, etc. which constitute detritus for decomposition. This process requires large amounts of oxygen and consists of steps such as fragmentation, leaching, catabolism, humification, and mineralization.
Energy flow: Energy is the primary source for almost all the organisms on Earth. It is the main factor that supports the survival of organisms. Energy flow takes place with the help of the food web and food chain. Energy flows from the Sun to autotrophs or producers and then flows from the producers to the consumers. In the ecosystem, the energy never flows backwards, that is, from the consumers to producers.
Herbivores feed on the autotrophs and change the energy from the plant into energy that they can use. Carnivores subsequently feed on the herbivores and, finally, other carnivores prey on the carnivores.
Ecological Pyramids: The graphical representation of the relationship between different organisms is called an ecological pyramid. It represents a different trophic level by each bar. There are three types of ecological pyramids.
Ecological Succession: Ecological succession is a fundamental concept in ecology. It is a process by which the mix of species and habitat in an area change over time. There are two types of ecological succession.
Nutrient Cycling: It is the process of absorbing, transferring, releasing and reabsorbing nutrients. It is the natural recycling system of mineral nutrients. Nutrients consumed by plants and animals are returned to the environment after death and decomposition, and the cycle continues. Soil microbes play an important role in nutrient cycling. Nutrient cycling rates depend on various factors such as biotic, chemical, and physical.
Ecosystem Services: The products of ecosystem processes are called ecosystem services. For example, healthy forest ecosystems purify air and water, prevent droughts and floods, cycle nutrients, create fertile soils, provide wildlife habitat, maintain biodiversity, pollinate crops, provide storage sites for carbon and aesthetic, cultural and spiritual values. Healthy ecosystems are the base for a wide range of economic, environmental, and aesthetic goods and services.
Biodiversity and conservation class 12 NCERT is an essential part of biology that details biodiversity, its components, and how we can conserve it. The students preparing for their exams can refer to the biodiversity and conservation class 12 NCERT solutions. These will help them understand all the concepts while ensuring that they can review the chapter quickly before the exam.
Topics covered in this Chapter 15 – Biodiversity and Conversation (Content Table)
Due to the increase in the human population over the years, there has been a rise in the demand for food, water, home electricity, roads, and other commodities which are essential for human existence. These demands lead to overexploitation of natural resources and also cause air, soil, and water pollution. The human population is solely responsible for this and has a moral obligation to look for possible solutions. Environmental issues are one of the very important concepts in class 12.
The students preparing for class 12 exams can access the course material related to Maths, Chemistry, Physics, and Biology on the Msgvo app. It is a learning app that makes studying complex subjects easy and enables students to study on the go. The course material is designed in such a way that students can understand the science behind each concept. They can study anytime and anywhere, based on their convenience. The Msgvo app provides an interactive learning experience and builds the problem-solving skills of the students. The app has detailed lesson plans which help students to understand the concepts easily and improve their performance.
The following topics and subtopics are covered on Environmental Issues which would enable the students to clarify their doubts: