Biodiversity and conservation class 12 NCERT is an essential part of biology that details biodiversity, its components, and how we can conserve it. The students preparing for their exams can refer to the biodiversity and conservation class 12 NCERT solutions. These will help them understand all the concepts while ensuring that they can review the chapter quickly before the exam.
Topics covered in this Chapter 15 – Biodiversity and Conversation (Content Table)
Biodiversity can be defined in many ways, but the most widely used definition is that of "the variety of life on Earth or the number of species of plants, animals and microorganisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems of which they form a part." Biodiversity is about more than just numbers and types of species. It also includes genetic diversity (the variation within species) and ecosystem diversity (i.e. variety at different spatial scales – from the local to the global).
There are three levels of biological organisation that can be used to describe biodiversity:
The different types of plants, animals and microorganisms in a particular region form its genetic diversity. For example, there are probably fewer species at a national level than at a local level.
The variety of genes that occurs within a single species population or community is species diversity. This variation can be passed on via reproduction to the next generation, e.g., many variations in flower colour varieties of rose bushes can occur due to differences in their genes (alleles) which are passed on through reproduction.
"Ecosystem diversity" refers to the variety of habitats, communities and ecological processes in a given area. It also describes the range of niches that different species occupy within an ecosystem.
How many species are there on Earth and in India?
Scientists estimate that there are about 1.5 million different species on Earth, 70% of which are animals, and the rest are plants. However, there are many more yet to be discovered!
India has recorded 45,000 plant species so far, which account for 6 per cent of the total known plant species of the world. We have 8.1% of the world’s species diversity.
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