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Chapter 1 – Reproduction

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

In technical terms, reproduction is producing offspring that are biologically or genetically similar to the parent organism. In simple language, it means to reproduce. It is considered one of the paramount characteristics of life on earth as it helps ensure the progression of species. Today, we discuss the concept of reproduction; we hope you can understand the concept with this simplified lesson.

There are mainly two types of reproduction:

1. Asexual Reproduction:– When only a single organism gives birth to the new individual, this type of reproduction is called asexual Reproduction. It does not include any fusion of gametes. Unicellular organisms basically practice this type of reproduction.

Features of asexual reproduction

  • It involves a single parent
  • Fertilization is not needed.
  • Asexual reproduction requires very little time.
  • Multiplication and growth of the organism are very fast. 

Types of asexual reproduction 

  • Binary Fission: The parent cell tends to increase in size and undergoes mitosis. Two same daughter cells are procured and the nucleus is divided into two. Example Prokaryotes bacteria.
  • Budding: it means when an offspring is developed, from the parent body. It detaches from the parent’s body once it matures. This type of reproduction is seen in Hydras.
  • Regeneration:  An advanced form of fragmentation. A part of an organism is detached from the parent body and develops into a fully independent individual. This process is called regeneration.

2. Sexual Reproduction:– When the production of an offspring is through the fusion of two organisms, mainly male and female gametes. As compared to asexual reproduction, It is a complex and slow process as the organisms produced are genetically diverse. Both humans and multicellular organisms manifest this mode of reproduction.

Stages of Sexual Reproduction

  • Pro-Fertilization

It happened before fertilization and includes two processes—first, the gamete formation and other transfer of gamete. Sex cells are called gamete, and the male gamete is known as sperm, and the female gamete is called the ovum. The male gamete must be transferred for the purpose of fertilization as the female gamete is unmoving.

  • Fertilization

When a zygote is developed as haploid male and female gametes meet and fuse together, this process is called syngamy. It can take place either inside the body or outside the body. Fertilization can be both internal by humans and animals and external by fish or frog. 

  • Post-Fertilization

When a diploid zygote is formed, the zygote splits mitotically, and the embryo is developed as a result of fertilization. This process is known as embryogenesis. The cell tends to differentiate and alter through embryogenesis.

Sexual Reproduction In Plants:-  Flowers are the sex parts of a plant that reproduce sexually. It involves the fusion of male gametes, pollen with female gametes, ovules. As a result, a zygote and an endosperm nucleus are formed and later grow into seeds and fruits. 

Asexual Reproduction In Plants:-  Some plants can reproduce asexually without the assistance of flowers or pollens. It is further divided into two types, such as:-

  • Natural Mode:- In the mode, the plant takes the help of roots to reproduce. Budding and cutting are also used by some plants to reproduce asexually. 
  • Human-induced Mode:- In this method, grafting, layering, cutting, and micropropagation are used to reproduce asexually in plants. 

Advantage of asexual reproduction in plants

  • Within a small-time, a huge amount of plants can be produced.
  • The new plant produced will be the same as that of the parent plant.
  • With the help of the vegetative method, several seedless varieties can be acquired.
  • An Asexual method requires not much attention and care than growing plants through the seeds method.

Sexual Reproduction In Animals:-  It is one of the usual modes of reproduction in animals. It involves a union of a haploid sperm and haploid eggs to form a diploid zygote and have the same DNA as of the parent cells. Many invertebrates and parasites tend to reproduce through a self-fertilization process, in which they fertilize their eggs with their own sperm. 

Asexual reproduction In Animals:-  Single-celled animals tend to reproduce asexually. The modes of asexual reproduction in animals include gemmules, fragmentation, regeneration, and parthenogenesis.

It is an offshoot of asexual reproduction in which the parent organism breaks into many parts, and each part grows into a new individual. Such as Planaria. One of the drawbacks of this method is that it does not produce genetic diversity. As a result, they are more vulnerable to diseases and other parasites. It is also called the splitting method of reproduction.

It is also a part of asexual reproduction under which from spores, a new organism is born. The proliferation of sporogenesis happens without fertilization and it disperses through air and animals. All spores look identical and grow individually in a homosporous organism and have reproductive parts of both the sex. The micropores give birth to males, whereas megaspores give birth to a female.

The study of reproduction has played a significant role in analyzing sexual reproduction evolution among various species. Reproduction is one of the easy topics and the most crucial chapter for exams. To learn more about it, check out the MSVgo app and its official site. The MSVgo philosophy is to enable a core understanding of any concept. The video library of the app explains concepts with examples or explanatory visualizations or animations, happy learning. This helps you not only understand concepts, but it’s an excellent choice for revising during the exams. Have a look and get it to know about it yourself!

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
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  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
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  • Magnetism and Matter
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  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
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  • Semiconductor Devices
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  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
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  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
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  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
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  • Periodic Classification of Elements
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  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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