# Chapter 8 – Electricity

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Many innovations and discoveries have made things simpler for humans. One such breakthrough we are heavily reliant on to make our lives better is the discovery of modern electricity. The invention of electricity is attributed to Benjamin Franklin.

#### What is the Concept of Current Electricity?

The movement of electrons from one part of the circuit to another is current electricity.

#### Static Electricity

The difference between the electric charges in a body, especially the imbalance between the negative and positive charges, is static electricity.

Physical means are used to establish the charge imbalance. Contact between solid structures is one of the most common triggers of static electricity. As previously said, protons cannot travel, and the only acceleration of electric charge observed in static electricity is that of electrons. Electrons are kept very loosely in objects, allowing them to be transferred by direct interaction such as rubbing. These charges may accumulate on an object’s surface before they can be released or discharged. A circuit is one way to discharge them, which is just what a lightning strike is.

The electric field generated by stationary charges is known as static electricity. The material’s surface contains several electric charges that combine the static energy on the surface. These static charges may occur on the Earth by interaction with one of the more charged bodies or by the presence of extra ions in the air.

#### Conservation of Charges

A charge allows matter to generate and undergo electrical and magnetic effects. The fundamental principle behind charge storage is that the system’s overall charge remains conserved.

It can be described as follows:

The theory of conservation of charge states that in an independent unit, the overall electric charge never varies. The irreducible amount of electric charge in the universe, which is equal to the value of positive charge decreased from the value of negative charge, is still conserved.

#### Conduction

Conduction is the method of transferring energy from one medium particle to another, but each medium particle remains in its location. Solids, liquids, and gases may all conduct electricity.

#### Induction

The magnetic field equal to the rate of shift of the magnetic field is known as Induction. For a conductor, this concept of induction remains valid. Inductance is another name for Induction. The inductance is expressed by the letter L, and the SI unit of inductance is Henry.

#### Lightning

Lightning occurs when there are electrical imbalances between rain clouds and the atmosphere or inside the clouds themselves. The majority of lightning occurs inside the clouds.

#### Dangers of Electricity

Electricity poses several risks, including electric shock, psychological damage, physical burns, neurological damage, and death from Ventricular Fibrillation.

When energy is not adequately regulated or harnessed, it may put those using it in grave danger. The hazards associated with electric power may be categorized into two types: direct and indirect. The direct threat is the harm that the force can do to the human body, such as stopping breathing or heartbeats or causing burns. The harms that may occur to the human body due to anything induced by electric shocks, such as a crash, an accident, or a burn, are among the indirect hazards of electricity.

#### Gold Leaf Electroscope

Abraham Bennet invented the gold-leaf electroscope in 1787, which is more sensitive than other electroscopes. It’s made up of two parallel strips of thin, flexible gold leaf that hangs from a vertical metal rod. The gold leaf is held in a glass container to protect it from air drafts. When a charged item is taken next to it, the gold leaves spread apart into an inverted “V.”

#### Battery as a Collection of Cells Connected in Series

When the positive terminal of one battery is attached to the negative terminal of the next cell, a group of batteries is considered to be connected in sequence. The algebraic number of all individual cells linked in series is the battery’s total emf.

If E is the battery’s total emf multiplied by the number of batteries, then:

E = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 +………..+ En

Similarly, since r1, r2, and r3 are the internal resistances of individual cells, the battery’s internal resistance is proportional to the total of the individual cells’ internal resistances.

r = r1 + r2 + r3 +…..+ rn.

#### FAQs

1. Explain electricity?
The movement of electrical power or charge is referred to as electricity. It is a secondary energy supply, indicating that we receive it by reforming main energy sources such as coke, natural gas, fuel, nuclear energy, and additional natural resources.
2. What are the two forms of electricity?
Direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) are the two forms of current electricity (AC).
3. What are the various types of electricity?
Static energy and current electricity are the two forms of electricity. Current electricity is the movement of electric charge through an electrical field, while static electricity is generated by rubbing two or more things together and causing friction.
4. What are the five different types of electricity sources?
Steam turbines utilize fossil fuels, nuclear, renewable, geothermal, and solar thermal resources to produce the bulk of electricity.
5. What is the most significant source of energy on the planet?
Sun is the main source of energy.

To learn more about Electricity through simple, interactive, and explanatory visualizations, get the MSVgo app. It offers a large base of learning videos as well as interactive learning methods.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time