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Chapter 5 – Language of Chemistry

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


The words like symbol, equation, ion, valency, atom, particle, molecule, reaction, and so on are all used in chemistry. In short, a chemical symbol signifies a certain element or an atom of that element. Chemical reactions are often simpler to write with chemical symbols than with long chemical names. Several scholars have devised several mechanisms of abstract representation. 

The ability of an element to blend is known as valency. In other terms, an atom’s valency is determined by the number of electrons it may acquire, share, or destroyed during a chemical reaction. The valency of elements is used to classify them as monovalent, divalent, and so on. Molecules are produced to fulfill an atom’s valency.

The periodic table of elements is commonly used in chemistry to look up chemical elements since it is structured in such a way that it demonstrates periodic patterns in the chemical properties of the elements. The Periodic table normally just reveals the element’s mark, not its full name. 

The majority of the symbols are identical to the element’s name, although certain symbols have Latin origins. Gold, for example, is denoted by Ag from its Latin term “Argentum.” Another source is the symbol ‘Fe,’ which represents Iron and is derived from the Latin term “Ferrum,” which means “iron.”

A compound’s chemical composition is a symbolic reflection of its chemical makeup. Chemical formulae show the components that make up a compound’s molecules, as well as the quantities in which certain elements’ atoms interact to form such molecules. The chemical formula H2O, for example, means that two hydrogen atoms unite with one oxygen atom to create one water molecule.

  • Chemical formulae contain details regarding a compound’s chemical makeup. 
  • They also demonstrate how the constituent elements interact to form the compound. 
  • When describing a compound in a chemical equation, the chemical formula is important. 
  • Ions, free radicals, and other chemical organisms may also be described using chemical formulae.

A chemical reaction happens as two or more compounds bind together (or sever bonds), producing or absorbing energy in the process (see our Chemical Reactions module). A chemical equation is a shorthand description of a chemical reaction used by scientists.

Take, for example, the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to create water. If we had a bottle of hydrogen gas and burned it in the presence of oxygen, the two gases would react and release energy, resulting in the formation of water. To write the chemical equation for this reaction, we will position the reactants (substances reacting) on the left side of the equation and an arrow pointing to the products (substances formed) on the right side of the equation (the products). Given this detail, one might deduce that the reaction’s equation is as follows:

“Mass in an isolated structure cannot be produced or lost, but it can be converted from one type to another,” according to the rule of conservation of mass. 

For a low-energy thermodynamic operation, the mass of the reactants must be equal to the mass of the products, according to the law of conservation of mass. We may relate the law to the balancing of simple equations.

The addition of stoichiometric coefficients to the reactants and products is needed to balance chemical equations. This is important since a chemical equation must adopt the laws of conservation of mass and constant proportions, which implies that the reactant and component sides of the equation must contain the same number of atoms of each part.

A chemical equation has drawbacks of its own. They don’t offer you any details about: 

  • Reactants and substances’ physical conditions As a consequence, the symbols “s” for solid, “l” for liquid, “g” for gas, and “vap” for vapour are applied to the equation. 
  • Temperature, strain, and catalyst also have an effect on the reaction. 
  • Reactant and substance amounts, dilute ‘dil.’ or condensed ‘conc.,’ are added in certain instances. 
  • The chemical reaction’s essence, such as if it’s reversible or permanent. 
  • The reaction’s speed 
  • The sum of heat that is given out or consumed as a consequence of the reaction. 
  • The time it takes for the reaction to end as some equations do not entirely reveal whether the reaction is complete.

In this chapter, we learned about the basics of the language of chemistry. With the information gathered, we can understand the chemical compounds and equations.

  1. What is a chemistry language?
    The words symbol, equation, ion, valency, atom, particle, molecule, reaction, and so on are all used in chemistry. In short, a chemical symbol signifies a certain element or an atom of that element. Chemical reactions are often simpler to write with chemical symbols than with long chemical names. 
  2. What’s the meaning of chemistry?
    Chemistry is the analysis of the properties, composition, and structure of substances (defined as elements and compounds), as well as the transformations and energy produced or absorbed during these processes. 
  3. What are the basics of chemistry?
    Chemical Nomenclature, Atomic Structure, Periodic Table, Lewis Structure, Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Acid-Base Chemistry.
  4. Why doesn’t the mass change during chemical reactions?
    Atoms are neither formed nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. To shape compounds, the atoms of the reactants are simply rearranged. As a consequence, in a chemical reaction, there is no difference in mass.
  5. What is the concept of an ionic equation?
    Ionic equations are chemical equations in which electrolytes are described as dissociated ions.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
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  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
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  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
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  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
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  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
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  • The Endocrine System
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  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
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  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
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  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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