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Chapter 7 – Hydrogen

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

The word Hydrogen comes from the Greek word ‘Hydrogenium,’ which means water forming. Hydrogen (H) is the lightest element, and it comes first in the periodic table. Hydrogen is the most common element in the Universe (approx. 75% of the mass of the Universe). You must be familiar with water (H2O). Well, water is nothing but an instance of Hydrogen gas. The stars you see at night are mostly Hydrogen.

As we have learned, it is the most common element in the Universe, but as Hydrogen is highly a reactive element; thus, it is not found in the free state.

Hydrogen can be found in:

  • Water
  • Petrol, natural gas, and other fuels.
  • Stars
  • Carbohydrates, Vitamins, etc.

In terms of properties, Hydrogen is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and highly combustible gas. It is so minute that 5 billion molecules of Hydrogen can fit the head of one paper pin!

Chemical Properties of Hydrogen

  1. Hydrogen is a highly flammable gas. It can explode if mixed with chlorine (5-95%). The spark, heat, or sunlight can further explode the mixture. Burning Hydrogen is dangerous; therefore, a flame detector is necessary to detect such dangers.
  2. It burns with oxygen to form water (H20).
  3. It has a melting point of −259.16°C, −434.49°F, 13.99 K.

 

Physical Properties of Hydrogen

  1. Hydrogen consists of one proton. Hence, it is the smallest chemical element.
  2. It is the lightest element. It has a mean relative atomic mass of 1.0079 AMU.
  3. It is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe.
  4. Monoatomic Hydrogen is rarely found on Earth.
  5. It is present in almost all living things and water.
  6. It is colorless, smell-less, and has the lowest density of all.

As we cannot find it in a free-state, a need to prepare it artificially arises. Hydrogen can be prepared in two ways: 

  • Preparation of hydrogen gas in a laboratory
  • Preparation of hydrogen gas commercially

Preparation of Hydrogen in the Laboratory

The preparation of Hydrogen in the laboratory results in a small amount of Hydrogen. The most common method is reacting a metal with acid. For this purpose, mostly Zinc (Zn) is used. The below reaction shows the preference of Zinc as the metal to be used.

Zn+HCL⇒H₂+ZnCl₂

Zinc reacts with any acid. As a result, Zinc replaces acid from Hydrogen to any salt and releases hydrogen gas.

Zn(s)+2NaOH(aq)+2H2O(l)→Na2Zn(OH)4(aq)+H2(g).

Zinc reacts with any alkaline. As a result, it replaces Hydrogen from Alkaline, and a salt is formed and releases hydrogen gas.

 

Preparation of Hydrogen Commercially

In this mode of Hydrogen production, a large amount of Hydrogen is produced. There are different ways by which you can produce Hydrogen commercially, namely:

  • Electrolysis of water
  • Non-electrolytic
  • Passing Steam over Hydro-carbons

The most prominent of the methods is the electrolysis of water. Let us read about it in brief.

It explains the preparation of Hydrogen from water electrodes. Hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water in the presence of Platinum electrodes using traces of either acids or Bases.

2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g)

The Bosch’s Process is named after the German chemist Carl Bosch. Bosch’s process is used to prepare Hydrogen.

Bosch’s process includes water gas being mixed with twice the volume of steam passed through catalyst Fe2O3, at 773 K, in the presence of promoter Cr2O3 or ThO2. It gives CO2 and H2 as a result.

CO2 is dissolved in water and is removed, leaving undissolved H2. It is a chemical reaction between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Hydrogen (H) to produce elemental carbon (graphite), water, and a 10% result of invested heat.

  • Use of iron as a catalyst.
  • The temperature of 530-730 degrees Celsius.
  • CO2(g) + 2 H2(g) → C(s) + 2 H2O(g)
  • The reaction produces 2.3×103 joules for each gram of carbon dioxide (CO2) reacted at 650 °C.
  • Bosch’s process is a method to remove carbon dioxide and generate clean water aboard a space station.
  • It is used to produce graphite.
  • The research is going on to use Bosch’s process for maintaining space station life support.

Hydrogen comes first in the periodic table and has a significant role in our daily lives. Although it is available in abundance, we can find Hydrogen in animal tissues, water, stars, etc. but not in a free state due to its chemical properties. So, we have to prepare it artificially. As we have learned, Hydrogen can be prepared using different methods like reacting Zinc with any metal or alkali, electrolysis of water, and more.

  1. Why is Hydrogen 1 in the periodic table?
    The atomic number signifies the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. The atomic number of Hydrogen is one because all hydrogen atoms contain one proton. That is why Hydrogen is 1 in the periodic table.
  2. What is lighter air or Hydrogen?
    Hydrogen is lighter than air.
  3. What is reduction?
    The removal of Hydrogen from a substance is termed reduction.
  4. How to liquify Hydrogen gas?
    Due to its physical properties, Hydrogen is an almost permanent gas. It only liquefies at very low temperatures (below –253°C).
  5. Can Hydrogen be used as a fuel?
    Hydrogen has a high heat of combustion. Due to this reason, it can be used as fuel.

To learn more about Hydrogen and access over 6,000 learning videos, games and quizzes, you can download the MSVgo app from the iOS App Store or Google Play Store. You can also visit the MSVgo website.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
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  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
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  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
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  • Classification of Elements
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  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
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  • Periodic Classification of Elements
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  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
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  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
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  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
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  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
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  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
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  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
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High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
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  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
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  • Sets and Functions
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  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
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  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
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  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
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  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
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  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
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  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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