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Chapter 1 – Transport of Food and Minerals in Plants

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Have you ever wondered how plants get their food and grow day by day? We all know that we need food to energize our bodies and to do work. But, what about plants? The osmosis process makes things possible for plants and helps absorb water and minerals from the soil. Minerals are to be required by the plants in inorganic forms. There are xylem and phloem tissues in plants that help in the transport of food and minerals in the plants to their various parts.

There exist three types of movements in plants, and these are:

  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Active transport

Definition of Diffusion

The movement of gases, liquids, and solids in plants from the higher concentration region to lower concentration is called diffusion. It is a physical process.

Definition of Osmosis

It is the unique movement of diffusion. It involves the movement of molecules from the higher concentration region to lower concentration through a semipermeable membrane. With the help of osmosis, plants can absorb water and minerals from the soil.

Definition of Active Transport

When plants are in the phase of moving the substances like ions, salts, minerals from the region of their lower concentration to the region of a higher concentration, they utilize the energy to do so. And this energy is utilized in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). This process is called active transport.

Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic nutrients. Minerals are essential for the optimum growth of the body. For example, zinc is necessary for the manufacturing of proteins and cell division also.

The plants require nutrients in a very small amount. And these types of nutrients are termed to be microelements or micronutrients. Some of the examples are iron and chlorine.

Nutrients that are required in larger amounts are termed to be macronutrients. Some of these are calcium and potassium.

  1. Phosphorus: boost the root growth and the translocation of carbohydrates.
  2. Potassium: acts as an enzyme activator. Deficiency may lead to mottled chlorosis.
  1. Copper: An essential component of ascorbic acid oxidase that is responsible for activating the enzymes.
  2. Zinc: An essential constituent of the enzymes like carbonic anhydrase, lactic dehydrogenase, etc.
  • Helps in the conduction of water and minerals
  • Maintains osmosis with the cells
  • Creates the cooling effect
  • Causes the elimination of water from the plant body
  • Creates the suction force helping in the upward movement of water
  • Help in keeping the leaves moist
  • Balances salts and minerals within the body
  • Maintains the osmotic pressure
  • Construct the plant body or help in the growth
  • Influence the pH of the cell sap
  • The surface area of the leaves: Leaves having more surface area show a higher rate of transpiration.
  • Environmental factors:
    • Light
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Wind speed
    • Atmospheric pressure
  • Cellular factors:
    • Availability of water
    • The distribution of stomata within the leaves

  • Xylem tissues are present in roots, stems, and leaves, whereas phloem tissues are present in stems and leaves.
  • These tissues form a bundle, and both together work as a unit.
  • Xylem transports soluble water molecules and mineral nutrients from the roots to other parts of the plant. Whereas when it is about the transportation of food and other nutrients like amino acids and sugar, phloem helps in their transportation from leaves to the storage organs and the plant’s growing parts.

Stems are the essential parts of the plants that connect leaves to the roots. But not all stems are similar. Some twist while some are like creepers or climbers growing long all in the garden. The vascular system helps make the plant grow and produce fruits or vegetables. The system helps transport minerals, nutrients (food), and water.

  1. What is the effect of osmosis on guard cells in the leaves?
    These cells are present on the outside of the leaves. They open and close, allowing the movement of gases and liquid molecules.
  2. How does osmosis affect the human body?
    Osmosis affects humans, as well. When a person is infected by cholera, bacteria get clogged into the intestine, making the intestine unable to absorb water from the outer concentration. It is how bacteria reverse the flow of absorption. Water gets dehydrated out of the intestine. And this causes dehydration leading to death.
  3. What is the role of root cells in the roots of the plants?
    In plants, diffusion occurs in the root cells helping in the absorption of the water and minerals.
  4. Why do the slugs and snails die when salt is sprinkled over them?
    Due to the salt, the cell mass becomes a hypertonic solution, and water rushes out of the cells, resulting in their shrinking and the eventual death of slugs and snails.
  5. Explain the process of transpiration.
    There is only a small amount of water retained in the plants during the process of photosynthesis. The rest of the water gets evaporated as water vapour with stomata present in the leaves. This process creates a suction that pulls up the water from the roots’ xylem and then to the leaves. The water is lost from the parts of the plants, and the process is called transpiration.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
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High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
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High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
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  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
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  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
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  • Improvement In Food Resources
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  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
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  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
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  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
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  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
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  • The Endocrine System
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  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
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  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
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  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
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Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
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  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
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  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
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  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
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  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
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  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
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  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
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  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
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  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
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  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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