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Chapter 9 – Soil

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


You must have heard that the earth’s surface is covered with water for 70% of the total area. But what is there in the remaining 30%? It is the landmasses that have soils at the surface. But is it true that the surface soil found in India and the surface soil found in the US both come under the soil? Yes, they both come under the soil as we check the soil definition in the following article section.

Soil is an unconsolidated mixture of minerals, organic and dead matters scattered on the earth’s surface. But in our general terms, soil can be any loose particles that we see around. The dust that we see on the furniture or the dirt that gets stuck to our clothes. Let’s check the classification of soils. If we look around, we can see soil teeming with life as it is home to millions of microbes and bacteria invisible to our naked eyes. Plants use the moisture in soil to get the required water content for them. The specialised xylem vessels are used for the absorption of water by soil.

There are different soil types around us. They are as follows.

    • Clay soil
    • Sandy soil
    • Loamy soil
    • Silt soil

Many people may think that soils are dirt, and their usage is simply confined to plants’ growth. Let’s check some of their uses.

    • It acts as the platform of growth for the natural vegetation around us, including the plants and trees. Soil and crops are interdependent.
    • For the earth’s atmosphere, it acts as the modifier.
    • It acts as one of the essential components of our biosphere.
    • It is a habitat for millions of microorganisms. Different kinds of fungi, bacteria, algae and more organisms can be found in the soil.
    • The organic materials present in the soil increase the soil fertility that helps in the growth of crops. It also contains the necessary minerals that are important for the plants to undergo important cellular activities.
    • Soils are also used for making cups, tiles and utensils. The ‘kulhad’ from which many people drink tea is prepared from the soils. Also, the ‘diyas’ are crafted from the soil.
    • The soil also acts as the water reservoir as it absorbs the rainwater and sends it to the ground level. The absorbed water also makes the areas cooler.

Soils are formed from the rocks when they are weathered and dusted from the parent rock. There are three established and proven ways that help in the formation of the soil. Let’s check them one by one.

Mechanical weathering: This type of weathering happens due to nature’s physical forces and happens on the earth’s surface.

Chemical weathering: It happens due to the chemical reaction that involves the breaking of the rocks. It might be an internal chemical reaction that occurs inside the rock or any hills or mountains.

Biological weathering: It may not be a direct weathering process of soils, but they often prove to be a catalyst for climatic or mechanical weathering. For example, the trees’ roots can break through surrounding walls or rocks, leading to soil formation.

The soil that we see around is composed of different types of materials. Let’s check the soil profile.

Organic Matter: Organic matter includes the plants and animals that form the primary source of organic matter. They are usually dead cells of this organic matter that we will find in the soil. However, organic matter forms a very small composition of the soil.

Minerals: The abundant portion of soil is minerals in various types of weathered rock particles. Minerals have a fixed chemical composition. Minerals often form the properties of soil.

Gaseous Components: Soil has a majority portion of air-filled pores that are in between the adjacent particles.

Water: Soils also contain water, and that’s why the plants can suck water and nutrients from the soil. Plants have xylem vessels for the absorption of water from the soil. The soil moisture also proves to be a source for the microorganisms and small reptiles that live inside the soil.

Soils are a natural physical entity present on the landmasses on the earth. They are of different types and composition and help in the survival of humankind. Soils are used for crops growth along with sustaining the natural vegetation on the earth. We also get essential minerals like calcium, iron and others from the soil. There can be many dead matters, organic matters, minerals, holes as the soil composition. Soil is necessary on the landmass as it forms the platform to carry out our daily activities.

  1.     What is in the soil?

There are different materials in the soil, including minerals, water, organic matter and gases.

  1.     What are soils?

Soils are the unconsolidated materials and minerals on the earth’s surface, capable of providing the necessary water and nutrients for plant growth.

  1.     What is soil and the different types of soil?

Soils are the unconsolidated materials and minerals on the earth’s surface that are capable of providing the necessary water and nutrients for plant growth. The different types of soils are sandy soil, clay soil, and loamy soil and silt soil.

  1.     What are the 4 types of soil?

The four types of spoils are sandy soil, clayey soil, silt soil and loamy soil. All these four types of soil have different soil properties.

  1.     What are the 4 main layers of soil?

There are three main layers of soils, namely the topsoil, subsoil and the parent rock. These layers can be composed of different kinds of materials.

On the MSVgo app, you can check videos about the different kinds of soil and their properties. Download the app now, and try it for yourself.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
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  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
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  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
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  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
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  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
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  • Study of Compounds
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  • The d-block and f-block elements
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  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
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  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
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  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
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  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
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  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
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  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
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  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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