Topics covered in the chapter - Reproduction In Plants.
Reproduction is a standard process in both animals and plants. Furthermore, creating a new organism from an old organism is known as reproduction. It is a continuous process that is essential to maintain the cycle of life. Without the birth of new beings, the world will not progress or develop. Reproduction is also vital for the progression of species. This article focuses on the reproduction of plants.
To understand the reproduction process in plants, knowing the different types of reproduction is crucial. Listed below are the two modes of reproduction:
1. Asexual Reproduction: In this type of reproduction, only one parent is involved in the production process. This mode of reproduction causes the offspring plant to be born without seeds or spores. Listed below are some ways in which plants carry out the Asexual Reprodoctuin process:
Spore Formation: Spores are small round-shaped bodies with thick walls to protect them from harmful conditions. The spores burst open and germinate in favourable conditions to form new products. Asexual reproduction is prevalent in fungus-like bread.
Budding: Budding produces offspring from the bud of a plant. This type of reproduction is prevalent among yeast, which grows and multiplies every few hours in favourable conditions.
Fragmentation: Fragmentation involves the parent body breaking into several pieces. This offspring plant is born out of the fragments of the parent body. Fragmentation happens when enough nutrients, water and the parent plant have matured.
Vegetative propagation: The process of vegetative propagation involves the creation of offspring plants from the reproductive or the vegetative parts of the parent plant. Several parts of plants, including leaves, stems, roots and bulbs, are reproductive parts.
Reproduction through plant leaves happens when the plant leaves fall into moist soil. The edges of the leaves sometimes form new offspring. Some examples of this type of propagation are Sprout leaves and Bryophyllum.
Reproduction through the plant stems happens through the buds in the stems. The buds form shoots that produce offspring. These shoots are known as vegetative buds. Another method where reproduction through plants happens is through the cutting method. When a small part of the plant's stem contains buds, when put in soil with the upper part above the ground and the lower part under the earth, it will help the parent plant produce offspring.
The offspring plant that grows via this type of propagation gains the exact properties of the parent plant. Some examples of this type of vegetative propagation include sugarcane, rose etc.
Another way of stem vegetative propagation is when a developed part of the parent plant bends down and touches the soil. The root of the offspring plant grows from the matured part and becomes a new plant. This process is known as layering. The last method of stem vegetative propagation is when two different plants combine to form a new plant. The shoot part of a plant and the root part of a plant combine to create an entirely new offspring plant.
The part which contains the root is known as stock, and the part that includes the shoot is known as scion. The scion and the stock come together to form the desired offspring.
Reproduction via roots and bulbs happens when the parent plant creates a new plant from the roots and the bulbs. Some examples of this type of vegetative propagation include dahlia, sweet potato etc.
2. Sexual Reproduction: Sexual Reproduction of a plant happens when fertilisation happens. Fertilisation is when the male part of the flower that creates the male cell (gamete) and the female part of the flower that produces the female cell (gamete) combine to make new plants. The combined form of the cells is known as the zygote. The flowers are the reproductive part of the plant. They help grow seeds and fruits necessary for the plants to reproduce.
It is essential to know the parts of the reproductive part of the flower to understand the Sexual Reproduction of a plant. Listed below are the four main parts of the flower:
Types of Flowers:
Ways of Reproduction in a Flower:
The primary function of flowers is to ensure that reproduction occurs in the plant. Listed below are some ways in which reproduction in flowers takes place:
The movement of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma is known as pollination. There are two methods of pollination - self-pollination and cross-pollination. Self-pollination includes the transfer of the pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower. Cross-pollination involves the transfer of the pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same or different plant. Insects, bees etc., generally carry out this process.
Fertilisation is when the male and the female gamete combine to form a zygote. The germination process occurs when the pollen grains reach the Pistil of the stigma. With time, the pollen grains develop a pollen tube that passes from the style of the female gametes to the flower's ovary. Finally, the tip of the pollen tube bursts, and the male gamete comes out of the flower and combines with the female gamete to form a zygote. The zygote then develops into an embryo, subsequently creating a new plant.
Fruit seed Formation
After the fertilisation process, the ovary turns into a fruit, and subsequently, the ovule turns into seeds. Later, the other parts of the flower, including stamen, petals and sepals, stigma and style become dry and fall off the flower. Finally, the flower's ovary contains the zygote nourished from the ovule. Parts of this ovule turn into seeds or seed covering while the embryo grows via cell division.
This seed is then dispersed in different places by seed dispersal agents. This process of seed distribution is known as seed dispersal. These seeds that fall on the ground grow into new plants with fruit and flower-bearing ability. Listed below are some of the methods of seed dispersal:
The process of the development of seeds is known as Germination. Germination happens when seeds receive the most favourable conditions to grow. After germination, the seeds split into two; the upper half is plumule, and the lower half is radicle.
1. What are the different agents of pollination?
The different agents of pollination include wind, water, air, birds, animals etc.
2. What are the advantages of vegetative propagation?
The plants that grow from the vegetation propagation develop quicker than the other reproduction processes. Subsequently, the plants born from this process also inherit all the parent plant's qualities.
3. What are the advantages of seed dispersal?
Seed dispersal helps the plants grow under sufficient sunlight and prevents seeds overcrowding. This process also helps the plants spread among various parts as the seeds scatter far away from the parent plant.
4. Name the two types of reproduction in plants.
The two types of plant reproduction include asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction consists of the involvement of one parent plant, and sexual reproduction involves two parent plants to form new plants.
Reproduction plays a vital role for both flora and fauna. Therefore, students must learn this chapter in detail. Furthermore, this chapter will help them understand the reproduction process.
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