The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
You must have experienced connecting a battery to a torch, and when you switch it on, it glows. It is the simplest example to study the effect of electric current. Here, when we switch on the button, the electrical circuit is complete. Thus, electric current is produced, and the bulb glows. If, for any reason, the wire in the bulb breaks, the electrical circuit is incomplete. Then, the torch would not light.
When multiple cells are combined, it creates a battery
It is a closed connection of wires powered by a cell or a battery, through which electrical current can flow.
Electric componentSymbolElectric cellSwitch (in on position)Switch (in off position)Electric bulbBatteryWire
It is a diagrammatic representation of the electric components connected in the circuit using the electric component’s symbols.
Have you ever touched a bulb that is glowing for some time? Does it feel hot? Yes, it does feel hot.
A fuse is made up of wires that melts when a large amount of electric current passes through it. It prevents us from the occurrence of any short circuit or fire.
For example, the fuse is used in buildings to protect them from damage when the current exceeds the safe limit. It is also used in every electric circuit to avoid any damage caused by the excessive flow of current through the circuit.
These days people commonly use MCBs (miniature circuit boards) instead of fuse to serve the same purpose. It is a switch that turns off when an excessive current flows in the circuit.
When an electric current runs through a wire, it acts like a magnet creating a magnetic field around it. This is the simplest way to understand the magnetic effect of electric current.
The magnetic effect of electric current is used in electric fans, electric bells, loudspeakers, etc.
For example, an electromagnet is used by doctors to remove any metal particle that has fallen in the eyes of their patients.
Permanent magnetElectromagnetThey are made from a material that is magnetised to have its own magnetic field. An electromagnet is built from a coil of wires.The magnetic field exists for a longer duration.The magnetic field exists when electric current flows in the wire.For example, a fridge magnet.For example, an electromagnet is connected at the ends of the crane to lift heavy loads.
This is the working principle of an electric bell.
Everyone must learn about electric current and its effect to understand the basic working principle of many electrical appliances. Also, it is easier to represent the circuit diagram using symbols of the electric component. Whenever electric current flows through any wire, heat and magnetic field is produced.
The two effects of electric current are:
Whenever current flows through any coil of wires, heat and magnetic field is produced. Thus, heating and magnetic fields created are the main effects of electric current.
An electric current is defined as the motion of electrons from a negative terminal to the positive terminal in the circuit. It was earlier considered as the flow of protons from a positive terminal to a negative terminal in the circuit. So as a convention, the electric current is supposed to flow from positive to negative terminals in the circuit.
An electric circuit is a diagrammatic or schematic representation of the electric elements connected in the circuit using symbols of electric components.