The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
Wastewaterstory talks about the importance of water, wastewater journey, and ways to treat wastewater. It also discusses wastewater treatment plants, an alternative arrangement for sewage disposal and sanitation at public places. Wastewater is the liquid waste released by households, factories, and businesses, containing vegetable waste, chemicals, and other harmful substances. It is drained through a network of sewage pipelines towards the natural water bodies, which contaminates our natural water resources.
The most basic need of any human being is the availability of clean water to drink. 71% of the earth is covered with water, but only 0.3% of the water is usable for humans, so this essential natural resource is scarce. Water that is not clean and unfit for drinking results in several water-borne diseases, also leading to death. Therefore, it is necessary to clean wastewater before releasing it into natural water bodies by removing contaminants and pollutants. This whole process of clean wastewater is known as wastewater treatment which happens in several stages.
Sewage is a term used for wastewater released by households, factories, and businesses, containing vegetable waste, chemicals, and other harmful substances. Sewage water is a liquid waste that has a lot of impurities and contaminants. These contaminants can both be organic contaminants and inorganic contaminants.
There are two different pipelines in a building or infrastructure, one which brings clean and fresh water to the building. In contrast, the other one collects wastewater from the building into a well-maintained sewage system. It is a transportation system that collects wastewater from the point of source to the disposable end. A well-maintained sewage network will lead to proper sanitation.
A wastewater treatment plant is a treatment plant where contaminated wastewater is treated to fit for use. It purifies wastewater from biological, chemical, and physical contaminants. Wastewater treatment plant follows a specific order of treatment:
The first stage of wastewater treatment plants is collecting wastewater from various sources like households, industries, factories, etc. Wastewater from all these sources is collected through a network of pipelines for treatment in a wastewater treatment plant.
The actual treatment of wastewater starts from this stage. Therefore, screening is the first stage of treatment in which the larger impurities or contaminants are removed. Then, the wastewater is taken into sand removal tanks and grit tanks for treatment.
In this stage of wastewater treatment, organic impurities are treated from the wastewater. It is done using sedimentation, where the wastewater is poured into large tanks for large solid impurities to settle down in the tank. This collected solid waste is known as sludge which is treated using bacteria. This treatment produces biogas which can be used as an efficient fuel in households.
After the primary treatment process, wastewater is collected in aeration tanks, leading to the growth of bacteria in water due to air in the tank. This bacteria helps in decomposing smaller left particles of sludge. The sludge that settles down after this stage is known as activated sludge, and it contains air.
The activated sludge that remains after the secondary treatment is passed through a sand drying machine that dries the sludge, and the outcome is filtered water. This filtered water is finally passed through a sand bed so that all remaining contaminants are filtered out. This treated wastewater is then thrown into natural water bodies like rivers.
Sanitation is a term used to describe human excrete safe disposal, which is very important in public places like railways, bus stations, hospitals, etc. Poor sanitation could result in severe diseases. The government has issued some policies related to sanitation at public places, which everyone should follow.
Wastewater story is a vital science chapter and a life lesson on the importance of water in our life and how to treat wastewater using different methods.