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Chapter 12 – Reproduction in Plants

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

You might observe hundreds of living organisms, from human beings to animals, birds, insects, and plants, every day. But have you ever wondered how many species were not even seen by humans, before they went extinct? Or why some species are large in number, and others exist in a small population? Let us try to understand these concepts in brief before jumping onto reproduction in plants.

Every living species needs to multiply and promote to the next generations to prevent itself from extinction. Hence, the mechanism by which different living organisms make their offsprings is called reproduction.

Each living organism has its own mechanism of different modes of reproduction that depend on their body shape, size, and multiple other factors. In this article, we will have a look at the reproductive mechanism in plants.

  1. Sexual reproduction
    Sexual reproduction in plants is the reproductive process performed by the action of 2 parents. It is driven by the formation of offspring by the fusion of gametes or seed dispersal. In any plant, the reproductive part is known as the flower. In other words, male and female(parents) gametes are synthesised within the flower. On top of it, the process of sexual reproduction also happens in flowers. Structurally, the flower is divided into four parts:

    • Petals
    • Sepals
    • Stamen
    • Pistil/Carpel (female reproductive part)

    The pistil is the plant’s female reproductive part made up of stigma, style, and ovary. The topmost part of a flower is called stigma. Near that, there is a long tube connecting stigma to the ovary, which is style. There are several ovules within the ovary, where the eggs are synthesised.
    Stamen is the male reproductive part of the plant, made up of anther and filament, where the anther, a sac-like structure in the stamen, is responsible for producing and storing pollen. The primary role of the filament is to support the anther.
    A flower may be known as unisexual or bisexual based on the existence of either stamen or piston, or both. Bisexual flowers contain all of the four major parts, for example –

    Fertilisation
    The male gametes in pollen grains tend to fuse with the egg in ovules to form a zygote by seed dispersal process. This process is called pollination. Whenever pollen is sent from the flower’s anther to the stigma, pollination happens. Since the pollen can travel to other flowers, there are two possibilities – inter-flower and intra-flower:

    • Cross-pollination: It occurs when the pollen is transferred from the anther of the one parent flower to the stigma of another parent flower.
    • Self-pollination: It occurs when the pollen is transferred from the anther of the same flower to the stigma of the same flower.
  2. Asexual reproduction
    In this type of reproduction, only one parent is required, which passes on its trait to their offspring. There are two major types of asexual reproduction:Natural
    In the natural form of asexual reproduction, multiplication happens mostly using naturally occurring processes.

    • Vegetative Propagation: In this type of natural asexual reproduction, new plants are grown from a part of the parent plant by burying them in the soil, which carries sufficient nutrients to survive and essential DNA information.
    • Fragmentation: In this type of natural asexual reproduction, new plants are grown from a part of the parent plant while being attached to the parent plant, which carries sufficient nutrients to survive and essential DNA information.
    • Budding: In this type of natural asexual reproduction, an outgrowth is developed on the parent plant, which eventually turns into the offspring and eventually detaches itself.

    Artificial
    In the natural form of asexual reproduction, multiplication happens mostly using human-made processes performed in a laboratory, or the field.

    • Cutting: In this type of artificial asexual reproduction, a part of the plant is cut and buried in soil from which the offspring grows.
    • Grafting: In this type of artificial asexual reproduction, parts of two plants are joined together so that they can form a new plant.
    • Layering: In this method, the stem attached to the plant is buried directly in the soil to form an offspring.
    • Micropropagation: When a vast number of plants are supposed to be grown in a short period of time, laboratory-based micropropagation is preferred.

In this article, we studied different reproduction modes in plants and analysed different conditions and techniques used for different kinds of reproduction.

  1. What is the process of reproduction?
    Reproduction is how all the living animals multiply by producing their offspring and eventually retaining their species.
  2. What are the types of reproduction in plants?
    There are majorly two modes of reproduction, depending on the number of parents involved in the process- sexual and asexual.
  3. What is asexual reproduction in plants?
    As mentioned in the above article, asexual reproduction is the type of reproduction in which only a single parent divides/shares itself to create a new offspring with similar characteristics.
  4. What is the reproductive part of the plant?
    The flower is the reproductive part of the plant.
  5. What is the first step of reproduction in plants?
    Pollination is the initial step in the process of reproduction in plants.

On the MSVgo app, you can check-in details about the major differentiating factors between the physical and chemical change. You can also find many different examples of both physical and chemical changes.

High School Physics

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High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
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Middle School Math

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