# Chapter 4 – Heat

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

You must have experienced the heat in summers when you are wearing full clothes. Heat is a form of energy that makes us experience the rising temperature and react to it. It is a basic form of energy required on the earth for survival. If you take examples of polar bears found in Antarctica, they have thick fur that helps them remain warm even in the coldest of places. Hence, heat is necessary for the survival of organisms.

#### Heat and its Properties

Heat is transferable. The increasing temperature associated with the increase in heat is responsible for the atoms to vibrate more vigorously. These vigorous vibrations are transferred from one part of the body to others. Similarly, the vibrations move to the next section of atoms and continue to travel to the extreme, meanwhile conducting heat through the complete solid.

Heat energy flow is multidirectional. The vibrating atoms can be in touch with all their adjacent atoms and facilitate heat energy flow. The phenomenon of hot and cold is associated with this heat energy. When the temperature is high, then we feel hot and vice-versa.

There is also the phenomenon of sublimation, or latent heat, where the substance absorbs heat without changing its temperature. Hence, we cannot say that giving heat always increases the temperature. In these cases, heat energy is utilised to transform the state of the material. For example, if we supply heat to ice, then instead of increasing the ice temperature, it is utilised in the phase transformation of ice in the water.

In latent heat, the heat energy remains hidden in another form inside the material. For example, suppose we heat a container of water. It gets converted into steam which holds the heat energy that was transferred to the water while boiling.Since heat is a form of energy that follows the thermodynamics laws, heat energy can be transformed into other kinds of energy. For example, in cars, pistons’ heat energy is used as a mechanical force to drive the car’s motors. Similarly, in thermal power stations, heat energy in the form of coals are converted into electrical energy.

#### How Do We Measure Heat?

We use a physical quantity to measure heat energy. For measuring temperature, you can use a laboratory thermometer that runs on the mercury levels. Temperature can be written in different forms such as Kelvin, Celsius and Fahrenheit. All these three elements of measuring temperature are interchangeable and follow a fixed rule. Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature.

#### Transfer of Heat

Since heat is a form of energy that follows all the thermodynamic laws, it can be transferred to different areas. There are three conventional ways of heat transfer –

• Conduction: In this transfer mechanism, the heat energy is transferred due to atoms’ direct contact with each other.
• Convection: In this transfer mechanism, the heat transfer happens due to the transfer of any heated substance such as air.
• Radiation: It is a vast heat transfer phenomenon where electromagnetic waves are used for heat transfer. The sun’s heat reaches us through this radiation process.

#### What Kinds of Clothes We Wear in Summer and Winter?

Summers are hot, and winters are cold. Hence, we need certain clothes to keep us cool in the summers and keep us warm in the winters. For summers, we use cotton clothes to facilitate the evaporation process from the clothes surface quickly and hence making us cool. In winters, we wear woollen clothes that trap heat energy and don’t let our body heat pass out. Thus, we have a layer of heat around our body that keeps us hot in the winters.

#### Conclusion

Heat is a form of energy found in every part of our world. It obeys the Laws of Thermodynamics and can be transformed into different kinds of energy. For example, heat energy can be transferred to mechanical energy or electrical energy. There are three ways of transferring heat from one place to another: conduction, convection and radiation. Heat is essential for the survival of organisms on this planet.

#### FAQs

1. What is heat?
Heat is a form of energy found everywhere in the world. It is an essential part of every organism’s life cycle.
2. What is heat in science?
Heat is a form of energy that raises the temperature and increases atoms and molecules’ kinetic energy.
3. What is the best definition of heat?
The best definition of heat is that it is a form of energy that raises the temperature and increases atoms and molecules’ kinetic energy.
4. What are the types of heat?
The three types of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation.
5. What is heat, and what are the uses of heat?
Heat is a form of energy that raises the temperature and increases atoms and molecules’ kinetic energy. Heat is used to raise the temperature of any object or surroundings. It can also increase the kinetic energy of any atoms.

On the MSVgo app, you can check the different kinds of heat and their influences on earth. You can also learn about the different types of heat transfer mechanisms established in thermodynamics.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time