Chapter 14 – Electric Current and its effects

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

You must have experienced connecting a battery to a torch, and when you switch it on, it glows. It is the simplest example to study the effect of electric current. Here, when we switch on the button, the electrical circuit is complete. Thus, electric current is produced, and the bulb glows. If, for any reason, the wire in the bulb breaks, the electrical circuit is incomplete. Then, the torch would not light.

Electric current and its effects are observed using a toy or a transistor or a TV or any other electrical appliances.

Let us study more about the electric current and its effects.

Battery

When multiple cells are combined, it creates a battery

Circuit

It is a closed connection of wires powered by a cell or a battery, through which electrical current can flow.

Symbols of Electric Components

 Electric component Symbol Electric cell Switch (in on position) Switch (in off position) Electric bulb Battery Wire

Circuit Diagram

It is a diagrammatic representation of the electric components connected in the circuit using the electric component’s symbols.

Heating Effect of Electric Current

Have you ever touched a bulb that is glowing for some time? Does it feel hot? Yes, it does feel hot.

• When an electric current flows through a wire connected to the circuit, the wire turns hot. This is the simplest way to observe the heating effect of electric current.
• The heating effect of electric current is used in many electrical appliances like an oven or an electric heater.
• The heating effect of electric current depends on the thickness, length, and material of the wire.

Fuse

A fuse is made up of wires that melts when a large amount of electric current passes through it. It prevents us from the occurrence of any short circuit or fire.

For example, the fuse is used in buildings to protect them from damage when the current exceeds the safe limit. It is also used in every electric circuit to avoid any damage caused by the excessive flow of current through the circuit.

These days people commonly use MCBs (miniature circuit boards) instead of fuse to serve the same purpose. It is a switch that turns off when an excessive current flows in the circuit.

Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

• Hans Christian Oersted was the first to find the magnetic effect of electric current.
• When the current is flowing through a wire, and you bring a compass near it, you will observe a needle movement. The larger the current, the more is the deflection seen and vice versa.
• Simultaneously, if you reverse the current direction in the wire, the magnetic needle also moves in the reverse direction.

When an electric current runs through a wire, it acts like a magnet creating a magnetic field around it. This is the simplest way to understand the magnetic effect of electric current.

The magnetic effect of electric current is used in electric fans, electric bells, loudspeakers, etc.

Electromagnet

• An electromagnet is one of the most critical applications of the magnetic effect of electric current.
• A coil of wires is used to create an electromagnet. The magnetic field exists when electrical current flows through the wire. It is an artificial magnet.
• If the electric current does not flow through it, the magnetic field disappears, and it stops acting like a magnet.

For example, an electromagnet is used by doctors to remove any metal particle that has fallen in the eyes of their patients.

Permanent Magnet vs. Electromagnet

 Permanent magnet Electromagnet They are made from a material that is magnetised to have its own magnetic field. An electromagnet is built from a coil of wires. The magnetic field exists for a longer duration. The magnetic field exists when electric current flows in the wire. For example, a fridge magnet. For example, an electromagnet is connected at the ends of the crane to lift heavy loads.

Electric Bell

• An electric bell is an application of electromagnets.
• In an electric bell, there is a coil of wires that serves as an electromagnet.
• This electromagnet is connected to the hammer through the iron strip.
• A contact screw is close to the iron strip.
• When the contact screw touches the iron strip, the circuit is complete, and the electromagnet comes into action.
• The electromagnet pulls the iron strip, and consequently, the hammer hits the gong producing a sound.
• As soon as the gong is hit, the contact screw disconnects from the iron strip breaking the circuit. The electromagnet loses its magnetism.
• Again the iron strip touches the contact screw completing the circuit. Also, the coil of wires acts like an electromagnet. Again, the bell rings. This process continues fewer times until the switch is in the ON position.

This is the working principle of an electric bell.

Conclusion

Everyone must learn about electric current and its effect to understand the basic working principle of many electrical appliances. Also, it is easier to represent the circuit diagram using symbols of the electric component. Whenever electric current flows through any wire, heat and magnetic field is produced.

FAQs

1. What are the two effects of electric current?

The two effects of electric current are:

• Heating effect of electric current.
• Magnetic effect of electric current.
1. What are the main effects of electric current?

Whenever current flows through any coil of wires, heat and magnetic field is produced. Thus, heating and magnetic fields created are the main effects of electric current.

1. What is the electric current?

An electric current is defined as the motion of electrons from a negative terminal to the positive terminal in the circuit. It was earlier considered as the flow of protons from a positive terminal to a negative terminal in the circuit. So as a convention, the electric current is supposed to flow from positive to negative terminals in the circuit.

1. What is an electric circuit short answer?

An electric circuit is a diagrammatic or schematic representation of the electric elements connected in the circuit using symbols of electric components.

Many times students are often confused between the Heating effect and the Magnetic effect of electric current. At MSVgo, we have video lessons on each topic for a simpler and clear understanding.

High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
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• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
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• States of Matter
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• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
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• Biological Classification
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• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
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• Circulation
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• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
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• Genes and Chromosomes
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• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
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• Kingdom Fungi
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• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
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• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
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• Respiratory System
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• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
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• Transport in Plants

High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
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• Geometry – Area
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• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
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• Linear Programming
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• Mensuration – Areas
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• Number Systems
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• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time