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Chapter 14 – Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Overview

Semiconductor electronics are devices which under certain conditions allow the passage of electric current through it. Devices such as transistors, capacitors, and diodes are termed semiconductor devices that work on the semiconducting principle. 

The basic working characteristics of semiconductors come from their arrangement of atoms and elements they are composed of. The transition elements such as germanium and silicon are some of the elements that show semiconductor properties.

This Semiconductor Electronics device works under specific conditions to allow the electric current to pass and complete the electric circuit. The conditions are based on a switch that could be put on or off as and when required.

We have made an article on semiconductor electronics for you so you can understand the basics, and it helps in the exam preparation. Classification of metals, conductors and semiconductors is an important topic that is regularly mentioned in exams. You can use these notes for revision as well.

Intrinsic Semiconductors: These Semiconductor Electronics devices are composed of pure material, and no impurities are present inside. The conduction happens when the electrons and holes move due to the presence of thermal excitation. Also, since no contaminants are added, when the electron moves and creates a positive hole, the number of electrons and the holes are equal.

The Intrinsic Semiconductor is of two types:

  • N-type: In this type of semiconductor, the metal is doped with the electron-rich atom, which makes the majority of the charged carriers have a negative charge, and hence the name N-type.
    Here, ne>>nh
  • P-type: In this type of semiconductor, the metal is doped with any trivalent impurity (excess positive charge), which makes the majority of the charged carriers having positively charged holes, and hence the name P-type.
    Here: nh>>ne

Extrinsic Semiconductors: These Semiconductor Electronics devices are composed of impure materials, and impurities are introduced or are present in the system, which gives it electrical properties.

Many useful applications are made based on these extrinsic semiconductors. Keep reading below to know what they are.

Semiconductor electronics devices are a necessity and a tool for modernisation. Every semiconductor chip, transistors used in the development of modern PCs, servicers, and supercomputers are a step towards human development. Nvidia, AMD, Apple are some of the biggest companies grazing the world and are all due to the best quality semiconductor chips that they produce. Also, for your information, Taiwan is the semiconductor chips manufacturing hub in the world. Let’s read about some of the semiconductor devices that are used by us:

  • Resistors: Resistors are passive two-terminal semiconductor electronics devices that use electrical resistance as the circuit completion element. It is used in all conventional to modern-day communication tools, reducing the current, adjusting the signals, and dividing voltages, and many more.
    You must be familiar with this term while doing the experiments in your physics lab class.
  • Semiconductor diode: Primarily used for rectifying AC voltage, diodes give direction to the electric Voltage. They can restrict voltage flow in any particular direction to attain a DC steady voltage. They contain a unique and single p-n junction and can help in the phenomenon of generating light.
    There is a special purpose Pn junction diode which operates in reverse bias in the breakdown region.
  • Junction transistor: These little devices are chipped on the integrated circuit’s surface where they work to amplify, control, and generate electrical signals. These devices are composed of three main parts, namely, the collector, the base, and the emitter. The base acts as the switch, where when the electric current is applied, it acts and influences the device’s ability to conduct electricity between the collector and emitter. They are extensively used in computer chips and radios.
    Do you know, these transistors were used extensively in world wars for communication and were a reliable source for extracting information.
  • Digital electronics and logic gates: GATES are digital circuits. It tells us about the relationship between the input and output signals of any electronic device. These are also known as the fundamental building units of any digital system. There are seven logic gates, namely, AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR, and XNOR. The inputs are in the form of binary inputs which have only 2 characters, 0 and 1. 0 signifies false value and 1 signifies true value.
    GATES are one of the easiest topics which are asked in 12th board exams. Learn this topic by heart to score good marks.
  • Capacitors: These semiconductor devices are passive electronic devices and store electrical energy in the electrical fields of its plates/ surface. The physical form of the capacitor is composed of any two conducting surfaces separated by any non-conducting medium like vacuum or dielectric.
    C=Q/V where,
    C= Capacitance of the device
    Q= electric charge on the surface
    V= Voltage applied.

The capacitance is also defined as the charge stored per unit voltage.

  • In the designing and making of logic gates and circuits, semiconductor devices are used.
  • Microprocessors, integrated circuits are the heavy users of semiconductor materials. The laptop and PC industry is a mammoth consumer of these chips.
  • Oscillators and amplifiers are some of the analogue circuits where these semiconductor devices are used.
  • These are used in high voltage applications to reduce, convert, or divert the Voltage.
  • Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier: The Pn Junction diode is a device that can be used as a rectifier to convert and modify the AC or Voltage to DC or Voltage. The working principle depends on the Pn Junction diode, which can become high when reversing biased and vice versa.

Semiconductors have helped humankind to advance in technology a lot. It has been vital for our modernization. Everything you see which has been conceptualized based on the technology is somewhere running on the integrated chips. You must have heard Snapdragon processor, 7nm chips, 5 nm chips, and related words in the mobile and PC world. These are all developed via the best semiconductor materials which humans have made till now. All these Semiconductor Electronics devices are used extensively in our world. 

You can easily understand the concept or prepare for exams by looking at animation videos. MSVgo specializes in it. It brings you an extensive collection of educational videos for your syllabus. Learn more about these semiconductor materials and devices on the MSVgo website.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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