# Chapter 1 – Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry is the first chapter of the Chemistry NCERT book for Class 11. It covers the importance of Chemistry in our daily life and makes us familiar with introducing different divisions of Chemistry. Everything exists in a different physical state and nature of matter, which could be categorized in solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma state. And with this introduction, your first chapter in Chemistry starts.

We will look into different important topics that are covered in the book list wise.

#### Properties of Matter and Their Measurement

Matter is omnipresent, has mass, and occupies space. Broadly speaking, matter is categorized into three different categories, namely solid, liquid, and gas. Its measurement is a complicated factor as a single metric cannot be applied to different states of matter like solid, liquid, and gas. The International System of Units Si is a standard system which is followed by the whole science community and is the same everywhere. Mass and weight is a standard measurement metric which helps in quantifying any state of matter. As it is a fact that every state of matter has mass, it is imperative to come up with a standard measurement metric to measure it.

But measurement is an ambiguous term as there can be varying degrees of uncertainty in measurement that arises from various factors. The factors can be human-made or they can be physical factors like temperature, pressure etc.

Scientific Notation: Science has different terms to simplify the overall processing of huge to very small numbers. Like 10n where n is the scientific notation which signifies the power.

Scientific Notation Rules:

• To determine the power or exponent of 10, let us understand how many places we need to move the decimal point after the single-digit number.
1. If the given number is multiples of 10, the decimal point has to move to the left, and the power of 10 will be positive.
Example: 6000 = 6 × 103 is in scientific notation.
2. If the given number is smaller than 1,  the decimal point has to move to the right, so the power of 10 will be negative.
Example: 0.006 = 6 × 0.001 = 6 × 10-3 is in scientific notation.

Significant figures: It helps in determining the precision of any measurement and is measured in the number of digits in that measurement.

Dimensional Analysis: Dimensional analysis is looking at the units’ particular equations and allowing you to make a determination of final units (and possibly the correctness of your derivation of units for any equations). They come together when you are converting quantities to determine yield or some other calculated property. It helps in converting between units.

#### Dalton’s Atomic Theory

The basic law, which is present in the first chapter of the Chemistry Class 11 textbook, tells you about the postulate framed by Dalton. Dalton tried to describe a relationship between the atoms and molecules with respect to matter and their mass. According to NCERT:

1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.

2)  All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties

3)  Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.

4)    A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.

Dalton’s atomic theory proved to be a unique eye-opener in the field of Chemistry for the novice. Dalton was the first to explain the basic laws of matter in the scientific community. Now, let’s cover the two important topics of atomic and molecular masses.

#### Atomic and Molecular Masses

The atomic mass is the weighted average of the masses of all the isotopes of an element, while the molecular mass is the sum of the masses of the atoms in a molecule.

Average Atomic Mass is the weighted average mass of all isotopes of an element. We will now check the different laws of chemical combination.

Laws of Chemical Combinations: The IUPAC has recommended five laws that check the chemical combinations of different elements.

1. Law of Conservation Of Mass: The mass of reactants and products remains constant in an isolated system.
m[R]= m[P] where,
• m[R]- mass of the reactants
• m[P]- mass of the products
1. Law Of Definite Proportions: Joseph Proust proposed the law of definite proportions that states that every chemical compound contains a fixed mass of reactants and products that can be measured in moles.
2H + O2 = H2O, where two hydrogen atoms combine with a single oxygen atom to form a molecule of water. Whether you take a water molecule in Kashmir or the moon, the composition is fixed and will not change.
2. Law Of Multiple Proportions: John Dalton proposed this law when two elements combine with each other to form more than one compound; the weights of one element that combine with a fixed weight of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers.
1. Avogadro Law: Gases contain the same number of molecules or equivalent moles when the system’s temperature and pressure conditions are not varied.
2. Gay Lussac’S Law Of Gaseous Volumes: Coined in 1808 by Gay Lussac, it states that the pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the absolute temperature of the gas, when the volume is kept constant.

#### FAQs

1. What is the basic concept of Chemistry?

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry is the first chapter of the CBSE high school Chemistry course which dwells more on providing a brief introduction to the subject. You would be looking at the fundamental parts of Chemistry which includes atomic mass, molecular mass, Dalton’s law, mole, percentage equivalence, and more.

2. What is the definition of Chemistry?

According to NCERT, “Chemistry is the branch of science that studies the composition, properties and interaction of matter. Chemists are interested in knowing how chemical transformations occur. Chemistry plays a central role in science and is often intertwined with other branches of science like physics, biology, geology, etc.”

3. What are the 5 types of Chemistry?

The five types of Chemistry include:

•     Physical Chemistry
•     Inorganic Chemistry
•     Organic Chemistry
•     Biochemistry
•     Analytical Chemistry
1. What is the importance of Chemistry for Class 11?
Chemistry for Class 11 is an important subject taken by the PCM, science, and medical students. It opens a huge scope of allied fields for students, like chemical engineering, bioChemistry, pharmaceutical Chemistry, and many more. Students can take Chemistry in Class 11 if they are interested in pursuing a career in Chemistry and allied fields.
1. What are the important divisions made in the Basics of Chemistry?
The whole lesson is divided into smaller fragments which gives you a glimpse of different branches of Chemistry. You get to learn about the introductory topics and summary of the 5 branches of  Chemistry.

The MSVgo app provides a detailed list of professionally curated topics from Chemistry where you can learn by watching videos, listening to audio, and checking lessons. If you feel the need to get a crystal clear grasp of concepts, you should definitely check out this site.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time