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Chapter 12 – Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles And Techniques introduce the organic chemistry domain to the students after learning about carbon catenation and tetravalency aspects. Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies various organic compounds with respect to their structure, reactions, and properties. These compounds are carbon-based and include a range of other elements. We will discuss some of the basic techniques required to understand the organic compound’s properties and formation.

Organic compounds are broadly classified into two categories, namely acyclic and cyclic compounds. The cyclic compounds are compounds that contain closed rings. E.g., benzene, phenolphthalein, cyclopropane, etc. Acyclic compounds are single-chain or branched-chain compounds where a linear branch arises from a root chain. These compounds are simple in stereochemistry, and some of the examples include- ethane, isobutene, acetic acid, and more.

Acetic acid is a common household name of a daily use compound. According to the nomenclature of organic compounds, it is called ethanoic acid. Those types of nomenclature of organic compounds are made by the IUPAC, which is the standard union of chemistry.

The IUPAC follows a standard rule for deriving the structure’s name by taking the compound structure, and those sets of rules are essential for finding the nomenclature of organic compounds. Bear in mind that the common name is not always the same as the IUPAC name of the compound. IUPAC rules for naming the only alkane are as follows.

  1. Longest chain rule
    1. The chain containing the longest branch is regarded as the parent chain and would be used for numbering..
    2. Sometimes you may find two or more chains with equal length. In that case you should choose the root chain as the one containing the maximum number of substituents in it.
  1. Lowest number rule
    1. You need to number the chains in such a way that the nearest point of branching should get the lowest number when counted from the end. The numbers are called the locants.
    2. Make sure that the sum of the locants is always minimum.
  1. Identify the substituents
    1. Give a number to each substituent on the chain.
    2. When you come across two substituents on the same locant, give them the same number.
    3. Make sure that the numbers and number of substituents should be the same.
  1.     Write the name as a single word.
    1. Use hyphens to separate the substituents and groups and use commas to separate the numbers.
    2. Write in alphabetical order if two or more substituents are present.
    3. Use di, tri, tetra etc to represent the number of the same substituent in the structure.
    4. If you get across a locant position where two substituents are present equivalently from both ends, then you should opt for the alkyl group that comes first in the alphabetical order. It should get the lowest number.

Let’s look at the basic concepts of isomerism.

Any compound can have the same molecular formula yet behave differently in the presence of varied physical and chemical conditions. This property is known as isomerism and can be intuitively understood as you can change the positions of the elements/ compounds in the molecule’s organic structure. Hence it changes the properties.

In organic chemistry, reaction mechanisms refer to the all the constituent steps that comprise a reaction and which shed on all the relevant details including the movement of the electron, the formation of the bond, the energetics involved during the  cleaving of the bond and eventually the the overall kinetics of the reactants and the products. Any reaction happens due to electrons’ movement and can be accounted for through the change in the system’s energy. Some basic mechanisms include:

  • Nucleophilic substitution
  • Electrophilic substitution
  • Free radical movement

The organic reaction mechanism is an important topic that helps us understand the methods of purification of organic compounds. You will hear some of the frequently used purification processes such as sublimation, crystallisation, distillation, fractional distillation and many more in this organic chemistry topic. Organic compounds are treated with a mixture of different compounds to selectively favor any particular compound extraction.

Qualitative analysis analyzes the compound present in a given mixture. For example, if a compound is taken, the QA would be focused on finding the elements & the ions present in the given compound rather than studying how much they are present. Example:

Detection of Carbon and Hydrogen

  • Test for Phosphorus

Na3PO4 + 3HNO3 → H3PO4 + 3NaNO3

H3PO4 + 12(NH4)2MoO4 + 21HNO3 → (NH4)3PO4.12MoO3 + 21NH4NO3 + 12H2O

Quantitative analysis focuses on finding out how much of the elements are present.

  1. What is the basic of organic chemistry?

“Organic” is generally associated with the word with organic foods and products. Still, in the sciences, organic chemistry is referred to as the study of carbon compounds. Organic chemistry emphasizes the structure, properties, and applications of various carbon-containing particles that make up imperative biological molecules such as proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and vitamins. 

  1. What are the basic principles of chemistry?

We can understand chemical bonds in terms of electron sharing and electron transfer between atoms. The resulting ions and molecules are the basis for every substance. Much of chemistry depends on the electronic structure of the atom’s outer valence shell.

  1. What are the steps to learn organic chemistry?

            o   To start, any topic answers the question of what, why, and how. For example, what is an aromatic compound? How aromatic compounds formed. Why aromatic compounds are aromatic.

            o   Then, read the chemical reaction and play with them like your friends.

            o   Repeat and write on the paper.

            o   Revise before sleeping.

            o   When you are in bed, memorize everything.

            o   Prepare notes and revise them in weekly periods.

            o   Start creating a chemical reaction.

            o   Write from one carbon and hydrogen.

  1. What are the 4 main organic compounds?

There are essentially 4 classes of molecules that make up the cells of living organisms.

1)Carbs; saccharides (sugars) and polysaccharides (complex carbs)

2)Lipids; fats and oils, cholesterol, and most other steroids are derivatives of cholesterol

3)Proteins; amino acids, polypeptides, and enzymes

4)Nucleic acids; DNA & RNAs.

  1. What are the three main categories of organic compounds?

The three main categories of organic compounds are carbohydrates & lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles And Techniques marks the organic chemistry field’s starting in the NCERT chemistry book. From JEE and boards perspective, organic chemistry covers a major chunk of the chemistry syllabus. On MSVgo, you can check on some of the fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms with NCERT examples.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
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  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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