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Chapter 6 – Chemical Thermodynamics

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Chemical Thermodynamics is a crucial topic of both physics and chemistry. It studies the relationship between work, heat, and chemical reaction or physical change. 

In this text, we will discuss chemical thermodynamics exclusively. To know more, please continue reading the text. We hope this will prove to be insightful and helpful to you.

It is one of the branches of thermodynamics where the interaction of each molecule is considered to figure out the behaviour of a group of molecules.

Under equilibrium thermodynamics transformation of energy and matter is studied as soon as they reach the state of equilibrium.

When certain observations are made on a part of the universe, the rest of the universe is surrounding a thermodynamic system. The relationship can be expressed as the universe = system + surroundings. It can be divided into three:-

  • Open system: When mass and energy both can be transferred between the system, they are known as an Open system; then it is known as a steam turbine. 
  • Closed system: When there is a transfer of energy and not mass, it is known as a Closed system.
  • Isolated system: When both energy and mass cannot be exchanged, it is considered an isolated system.

The characteristic feature of a system is known as thermodynamic properties. They identify the system’s state. Thermodynamic properties can be extensive or intensive.

  • Intensive properties are properties that are not based on the matter’s quantity. An example of an intensive property is pressure and temperature.
  • Extensive properties are those whose value depends on the mass of the system. An example of an extensive property is volume, energy, and enthalpy.

The quantitative measure of stored energy in a system is called thermodynamic potentials. Potentials measure the energy change in a system. Potentials are used based on temperature and pressure.


Thermodynamic Potentials


Helmholtz free energy


F = U – TS


H = U + PV
Gibbs Free Energy


G = U + PV – TS


The law states the fundamental physical quantities that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium such as energy, temperature, and entropy. It mainly tells us how, under different circumstances, these quantities react.

There are four rules of thermodynamics:-

  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics: This law states that when two bodies are in equilibrium with the third body, then the first two bodies are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. 
  • The first law of thermodynamics: It states that energy can neither be destroyed nor made, but it can be transformed from one form to another.
  • The second law of thermodynamics: It states that overtime total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease, and if all processes are reversible, then it will be constant.
  • Third law of thermodynamics: It states that when the temperature of a system is zero or equal to zero, the entropy of a system will be zero.

There are fixed values of all properties of a system at a given state. Thus, the system’s state changes to a completely distinct one if the value of even one property changes. When there is equilibrium in the system, no change in the value of properties occurs when isolated from its surroundings.

Types of Equilibrium

  • Thermal equilibrium: When the temperature remains constant throughout the whole system, it is known as thermal equilibrium.
  • Mechanical equilibrium: When the pressure remains constant throughout the whole system, it is known as mechanical equilibrium.
  • Chemical equilibrium: When the chemical composition with time shows no change, then it is chemical equilibrium.

Phase equilibrium: It is a system of two-phase where the mass of each phase reaches equilibrium.

    1. What is Q-chemistry thermodynamics?
      Ans. Calculus is a branch of mathematics that helps in understanding different changes in values, all of which are concerning a function. Calculus mainly has two types; they are differential and integral calculus.
    2. What are the three laws of thermodynamics?
      Ans. The first law states that energy can neither be destroyed nor can be created, but it can be transformed from one form to another.The second law states that overtime, the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease, and if all processes are reversible, it will be constant.The third law states that when a system’s temperature is zero or equal to zero, the entropy of a system will be zero as well.
    3. Why is thermodynamics important in chemistry?
      Ans. It studies the changes in free energy, entropy, enthalpy, etc. in a chemical reaction. Thus, it helps in studying and understanding a chemical reaction.
    4. What is the second law of thermodynamics in simple terms?
      Ans. It simply says that processes are irreversible in which transfer of heat energy is involved.
    5. How is thermodynamics used in everyday life?
      Ans. We can witness in our house heating and cooling system and other engines all integrated with thermodynamics in everyday life. Even in the building and vehicle designs, thermodynamics is used.


Chemical Thermodynamics helps in comprehending the combined effect of both heat and their state change. We will first explain chemical thermodynamics, with in-depth concept notes and explanatory video on the MSVgo app. MSVgo app has a video library that explains concepts with examples or explanatory visualizations or animation. To learn more about it, check out the MSVgo app and its official site. Stay tuned with the MSVgo app and enjoy learning!

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
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High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
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High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
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High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
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Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
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  • Carbon and Its Compounds
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  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
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Middle School Math

  • Addition
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  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
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  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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