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Chapter 19 – Metals and nonmetals

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Why can’t you play cricket with a ball made of glass? Or a ball made of iron? Which metals and nonmetals can be used to make balls? 

You might have come across many types of materials in your daily life, including rubber, aluminum, sponge, stone, and wheat. Why is it that all these materials’ physical and chemical properties are different?

These materials are made from different types of elements, which render different physical and chemical properties. These differences alter their physical shape, elastic property, chemical nature, and other properties and parameters. So, you can play cricket with a ball made of rubber or PVC material, but not with glass or iron balls. These differences in metals and nonmetals constitute a pivotal factor that makes the different things we see around us.

Let us now delve into this world of metals and nonmetals.

Metals refer to those substances having certain fundamental properties such as ductility, malleability, luster, conductivity, and a solid feel to the touch. These inherent factors are part of the physical properties of metals and non metals, which separate them into the two categories. We can find many natural occurrences of metals on earth, including gold, iron, copper, silver.

The chemical properties of metals include corrosion, resistance, combustibility, and reactivity, among others. There are methods to neutralise some of these properties. For instance, you can follow techniques such as galvanization, painting, and polishing for the prevention of corrosion.

Here’s an interesting fact: Did you know silver is the most conductive metal on the elements table?

Nonmetals are substances that differ in their physical properties when compared to metals. They are non-ductile, non-malleable, non-shiny, non-fusible, and can be broken easily. Generally, they are bad conductors of electricity. They are used to make resistors in electrical circuits, among other uses. Some examples of nonmetals are oxygen, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, etc.

Nonmetals are extensively used to make fertilizers and antiseptics. Oxygen, being a life-carrying agent, comprises 21% of the total atmospheric gases.

An interesting fact about nonmetals: Did you know that graphite is a good conductor of electricity despite being a nonmetal? It is an exceptional case among nonmetals.

Let’s take an example of metal sodium (Na) and nonmetal chlorine (Cl). Sodium is an electropositive element with valence 1, and chlorine is an electronegative element with valency 1.

  1. Any electropositive element has a tendency to donate the valence electrons as, by doing so, it can achieve an inert gas configuration and become stable. Sodium is an electropositive element. It has a single extra electron in its outer valence shell that it looks to donate to any electronegative element to gain stability.
  2. Similarly, any electronegative element is any element having more than 5 electrons in its valence shell. Hence, they accept the remaining number of electrons from any donating species to gain the inert gas configuration for stability. In this example, chlorine has 7 valence electrons, and hence 1 space for electrons is still empty. It can thus accept 1 electron to gain stability.

Keeping the play of valence electrons in mind, you can predict the outcome when metals and non metals react. In our case, when the sodium reacts with chlorine, the extra valence electron in the sodium is donated to the electronegative chlorine, forming an ionic bond between them. Ionic bonds are fairly strong bonds and can hold both elements together to form a single compound known as sodium chloride (NaCl).

Let us now understand the properties of ionic compounds.

Properties of ionic compounds

  1. Physical state: Ionic bond compounds are solid and mildly hard. However, they are brittle and can break with the application of pressure.
  2. Melting and boiling point: They have fairly high melting and boiling points.
  3. Conductivity: Since the formation of bonds is due to ions transfer, the solution is conductive and plays a major role in making the conventional cells.

You must have heard about mines and valleys from where metals are extracted. Let’s now take an overview of this topic

Metals are found in ‘free state’ in nature in the form of ores. These ores are rich in minerals (metals and non metals) and are converted into a molten state to extract the desired minerals. The metal extraction process follows the rules of the reactivity series of metals, wherein the metals at the bottom of the reactivity series are least reactive. This reactivity series is used to group the metals into three categories and then carry out a specialized extraction process for different series.

During the extraction of ores as part of the mining process, we can find many impurities like soil, sand, etc., mixed in the ore. These impurities, referred to as ‘gauge’, are removed before the extraction process, so that we get refined metals during the extraction process.

Metals and non-metals are inherent parts of nature and help us make different things for our use. We use soaps, play with balls, drink water; many more elements of our daily life have metals and non metals as their composing material. The physical properties of metals and non metals differ from each other and help us understand their differences in their naturally occurring state.

  1. What are metals and non metals?

Metals and non metals are naturally occurring substances found on earth. They are used to build a variety of things which we can feel around us and use in our daily lives. E.g., gold, copper, sodium, oxygen, etc.

  1. What is metal and nonmetal, with example?

Metals are substances having properties such as ductility, malleability, sonorous, lustre, and conductivity. Their examples include gold, silver, iron, and copper.

Nonmetals are substances not having ductility, malleability, and sonorous properties, and they are different from metals. Their examples include oxygen, sulphur, and chlorine.

  1. What are the 7 properties of metals?

The 7 properties of metals are ductility, malleability, sonorous, lustre, conductivity, high melting and boiling points, and hard solid surface.

  1. What is example of metal?

Examples of metals include iron, copper, aluminium, tungsten, gold, and silver.

  1. What are the types of metals?

The different types of metals are ferrous metals, nonferrous metals, and alloys. Alloys are a mixture of metals with their proportions fixed in a particular ratio.

You can find out more about ferrous metals, nonferrous metals, and alloys and these metals’ various properties. Their properties are also defined through magnetism, and you can check out more about this concept MSVgo.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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