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Chapter 10 – Electric Motor

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

In simple words, electrical devices that can convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy can be termed as an electric motor. Its working is based on Fleming’s left-hand rule that we will further read in this blog. You must have seen the mixer grinder converting the electrical energy into some form of mechanical energy. The grinder’s motor rotates, rotating the jar cranks at the bottom and hence crushing the ingredients. Similarly, a remote-controlled car also converts electrical energy into mechanical rotating energy with the analogue signal as input. 

All  types of devices that convert some form of energy like electrical energy to mechanical work are termed as electric motors. Let’s now understand the components of an electric motor.

An electric motor has different parts in it. They are listed below:

  • A power supply
  • Field Magnet
  • Commutator
  • Brushes
  • Armature
  • Axle

These parts are the building components of the electric motor. Let’s understand each part in detail. 

  1. Commutator: It is the major component of the motor. It is the rotating interface of the coil.
  2. Power Supply: It is the electrical form of energy that is used to run the motor. It is usually a DC source for the electric motor.
  3. Armature Coil: The coil that helps the motor to run.
  4. Armature Core: It holds the armature coil.
  5. Brushes: It is a conducting medium that imparts electricity between wires and the moving parts.
  6. Field Magnet: By using Fleming’s left-hand rule, a torque is produced with the help of a magnetic field.

There are primarily two types of electric motors— AC motor and DC motor. The basic difference comes in their nature of power supply where the DC motors work on DC power supply, and the AC motors work on AC power supply. There may be a further classification of electric motors based on the components they use, such as brushing or brushless motors and more.

Electric motors are used extensively in many electrical applications and are a primary tool to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Some of the appliances in which they are used are:

  • Water pumps
  • Cars, remote cars, vehicles
  • Drilling machines
  • Industrial machinery
  • Washing machine

The major working principle of an electric motor is based on Fleming’s left-hand rule. Let’s look at an example of a DC motor to learn how it works.

  1. The armature core is placed between the electromagnetic poles and the winding is done with the copper wire. 
  2. DC current is supplied through the armature coil which revolves inside a magnetic field of the electromagnet. 
  3. The current experiences a net torque if it flows inside any magnetic field. Hence, the armature experiences a net torque. 
  4. Fleming’s left-hand rule (establishes a relationship between the perpendicular force, field and the current vectors) can be applied to determine the direction of the force.  It is experimentally found that the net forces by the North and South poles are in such a way that they tend to rotate the armature. 
  5. As one-half rotation is completed, the current  changes its direction due to the change in the conductor’s location with respect to the N and S pole. 
  6.  Now, a new torque is  produced in the same rotational direction, and it further completes a full rotation.

Electric motors are an essential component of modern-day instruments and play a vital role in carrying out  mechanical work like drilling, rotation and much more. The motors are broadly categorized based on their power supply. They can be AC or DC source motors with different components. You can build a car or even a washing machine by using motors and other necessary parts. Electric motors are widely used and are a boon to the modern world as it helps  make things easier.

1. What is the principle of an electric motor?

The basic principle of the motor is that any current going inside a magnetic field will produce a force that will try to move the conductor. It can also be verified by Fleming’s left-hand rule, which tells us the relational direction between the force, field and current.

The armature coil rotates under the direct influence of the torque produced by the moving current in the wire that is inside the magnetic field created by the electromagnets or permanent magnetic materials.

2. What are the different types of electric mot-ors?

The different types of electric motors are: 

  1. AC Motors: This type of motor includes phase motor, capacitor start motor, capacitor start capacitor run motor, resistance start motor, hysteresis motor, universal motor, 3 phase motor, squirrel cage induction motor, and slip ring induction motor.
  2. DC Motors: DC motor types include DC series type, DC shunt type, DC compound type, long shunt compound, and short shunt compound.
  3. Servo and stepper motors are also electric motors that have been modified to achieve a more advanced purpose.

3. What are the two types of motors?

The two types of electric motors are AC motors and DC motors.

4. Is an electric motor AC or DC?

Both AC and DC are used to power electric motors. The main necessity of any electric motor is a current that is provided by both the AC and DC source.

5. What is an electric motor with a diagram?

Electric motors are  very useful devices that convert the electrical energy from any source (AC or DC) to mechanical energy for any productive work. Check the electric motor diagram below:

Aren’t electric motors fascinating devices? On MSVgo, you can learn about how electric motors work with the help of diagrams and animations. It is a vast video library where you can learn about electric motors by understanding the core concepts behind them and also explore interactive learning methods such as MCQ quizzes to solidify those concepts.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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