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Chapter 29 – Control and Coordination

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Everyone around you – people, animals, plants, and other living beings – are constantly engaged in some kind of activity, movement, or growth. Buds growing into flowers, cats running after mice, kids playing games, sleeping, eating, etc. – what regulates all these activities? In human beings and animals, the body’s functions and processes are controlled and coordinated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Similarly, the control and coordination in plants is tackled by certain chemical substances known as plant hormones.

To understand the mechanisms of control and coordination in living organisms, you must be aware of the basics of the nervous and endocrine (hormonal) systems.

The nervous system comprises a network of nerves with specialized cells called neurons that communicate with different body parts through electrical impulses and chemical signals.

Parts of The Nervous System

In vertebrates, the nervous system comprises two key parts: the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). While CNS serves as the core processing unit of the nervous system, the PNS acts like a channel that facilitates communication between CNS and other parts of the body.

Central Nervous System CNS

The central nervous system primarily consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the main functional unit of CNS that controls awareness, thoughts, memory, movements, and sensations. Likewise, the spinal cord is responsible for transmitting signals back and forth between the peripheral nerves and the brain. Further, CNS also regulates the heart rate, body temperature, breathing, hormonal secretions, and several other functions.

Peripheral Nervous System PNS

The peripheral nervous system constitutes the nerves that connect all the organs of the body and blood vessels to the CNS. It sends messages from the brain to the rest of the body and brings information from different parts of the body to the brain.

Organs of the Human Nervous System

The main organs of the human nervous system include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

The brain is the most complex of all human organs. It is made up of three parts: forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain contains areas that process the sensory information and maintain the coordination and balance of the body. The midbrain and hindbrain mainly control the involuntary actions of the body.

The spinal cord is a long tubular structure that starts from the brain and ends at the bottom of the backbone (or spine). It is a collection of nerves that connect the brain to all the body organs and carry the outgoing and incoming signals.

Nerves are cylindrical bundles of fibers, known as axons. The nerve cells (neurons) transmit signals to other cells via axons. These signals travel along the axons in the form of electrical impulses.

Functions of the Nervous System

The nervous system’s fundamental function is to receive information from the environment (sensation) and produce a response that makes the body act accordingly. For example, when you touch a hot object, the information is relayed from the brain’s sensory organs via the nervous system. Thus the brain sends instructions to the body to react appropriately. Apart from this, the nervous system assists in regulating body temperature, digestion, breathing, heartbeat, etc.

Reflex action refers to the immediate reactions that the body shows on encountering certain stimuli. As in the above-given example, you are bound to immediately pull away your hand if you come across a hot object. Similarly, sneezing, blinking, and similar actions are also examples of reflex actions. In such automatic response scenarios, the stimulation happens via PNS, but the response is involuntary. Reflex arc refers to the path followed by the nerve impulses in case of reflex actions. Unlike voluntary actions, in reflex actions, the body tends to act on the impulse before it actually reaches the brain.

Hormones are chemical substances that are secreted by different endocrine glands into the bloodstream. These hormones are then delivered to the targeted organ to stimulate the necessary action or process. For example, when animals face a dangerous situation, their adrenal glands secrete the hormone adrenaline, which leads to a faster heartbeat and breathing rate, thus preparing the animal to deal with the situation. Hormones also help in the proper growth and development of animals and humans. The endocrine glands collectively form the endocrine system of the body.

The control and coordination in plants is executed by the plant hormones, also called phytohormones. Phytohormones promote the growth of plants in every aspect. The response of plants to a stimulus is slower than that of animals/humans because of a lack of a nervous system.

1. Why is control and coordination important?

Control and coordination is essential for the growth and survival of living beings. Through this system, the living organisms consume necessary nutrients, and subsequently, their bodies carry out important life processes. Further, the system also aids in the interaction and response activities.

2. What is control and coordination class 10th?

Control and coordination chapter of class 10th includes studying the nervous system, reflex action, and hormonal system, and their role in regulating movements and growth in humans and animals. It also throws light on the chemical coordination that takes place in plants.

3. Is control and coordination a life process?

Control and coordination is a life process that enables living beings to respond to their environment well and perform other basic functions.

4. What is the difference between control and coordination?

Control refers to regulating bodily functions and processes in terms of their initiation, rate of occurrence, and termination. On the other hand, coordination denotes the synchronized working of various systems of the body in the course of different activities or processes.

5. What are the two main types of coordination and control in animals?

The two main types of coordination and control in animals are: Nervous and Chemical. The nervous control and coordination is mediated by the nervous system, while the endocrine system handles the chemical type.

To learn more about the control and coordination concepts with illustrations, check out the videos on the MSVgo app.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
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High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
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High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
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  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
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  • Cell Reproduction
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  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
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  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
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  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
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  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
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  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
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High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
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Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
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  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
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  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
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  • Multiplication and Factors
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  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
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  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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