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Chapter 22 – Carbon compounds

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Have you looked around in your room or wondered while eating your food about the presence of carbon in your everyday life? If yes, you are right because carbon is omnipresent. If not, you need to know that carbon compounds are present in almost everything that you see, eat, wear, or play with.

The starch and other nutrients in your food, like proteins, fats, vitamins, and carbs all contain carbon. Similarly, the fuel that we burn in our homes, the soap that you use in the shower, the cotton or the woollen t-shirt that you are wearing right now, all of these are marked with the presence of carbon.

Let us understand more about carbon and its compounds. To gain further clarity and to get your basics clear, use an app like MSVgo that makes learning easy because it offers you the concepts in a visualized format with animations and interactive UI.

In the periodic table, Carbon is the sixth element; its atomic number is 6; its symbol is ‘C’ and it is a non-metal. The two most popular oxides of carbon are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. 

There are four types of carbon compounds. These are:

  1. Carbohydrates – this is the main source of energy. The structure is 1 atom of carbon: 2 atoms of Hydrogen: 1 atom of Oxygen. Examples of carbs are glucose, galactose, and fructose.
  2. Lipids – the main function of lipids is to store energy. The structure of lipids contains carbon and hydrogen atoms. Under Lipids, the classifications are – saturated lipids which is the unhealthy version; and, unsaturated lipids which are liquids at room temperature; and, Poly-saturated Lipids which contain more than 1 double bond. Examples of Lipids are Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Waxes, and Steroids. 
  3. Nucleic Acids – the nucleic acids are made up of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and phosphorous. Examples of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA.
  4. Proteins – the protein atoms are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There are three shapes of protein molecules – primary, secondary, and tertiary. 

Besides these four types, in carbon compounds, based on the number of bonds that are formed between the carbon atoms, there are two major categories – saturated and unsaturated compounds.

Saturated Carbon Compounds

The carbon atoms are arranged in a ring-like structure. They are linked with one another with single bonds. Examples of such compounds are Alkanes. Ethane is a very common example. 

Unsaturated Carbon Compounds

In the atomic structure, the atoms are in a ring shape and attached to each other, using double or triple bonds. Alkenes have two bonds and Alkynes have triple bonds. These two are the most common examples of unsaturated compounds. Ethene is a common name known.

What is catenation?

Catenation is the property because of which the atoms of the element can form covalent bonds with one another due to the formation of a ring of atoms. Carbon is one element that can form single, covalent, and triple bonds. 

Not only within its molecular structure, but carbon atoms are also able to form pπ-pπ bonds with atoms of other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. It is due to its property of catenation, that carbon has various allotropes.

About 0.5% of the entire universe is made up of carbon and its compounds. This goes to show that Carbon is one of the most widely available heavy non-metals. 

When we talk of the Blue Planet, our Earth, carbon constitutes about 0.025% of the crust of the Earth. Here it is present in rocks and stones, for example, limestone. Carbon is also present in good quantities in living organisms. 

Carbon compounds have three types of existence: Straight chains, branches, and rings. 

  • In straight chains, the carbon atoms are linked to each other in a straight line. There are no branches in this case. Hydrocarbons are a good example of straight-chain formation.
  • Branches, as can be understood from the term, are where the carbon atoms bond with other atoms to form branches. This kind of molecular structure is most visible in compounds that have high molecular weight.
  • Rings, as is clear from the name, are where carbon atoms are bonded with one another or with other atoms, in a way that they form rings or cycles. One example is cyclohexane. 

There are four types of carbon compounds – Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, and Proteins. The other division of these compounds is based on the atomic bonds and there are two divisions – saturated and unsaturated compounds. Examples of carbon compounds are – carbon oxides like CO and CO2; carbonates like CaCO3; carbon sulphides like CS2; oxalates like BaC2O4; and carbon-nitrogen compounds like HCN or Hydrogen Cyanide. As per scientists, more than a million carbon compounds exist in this universe.

Examples of compounds of carbon are – methane CH4, Calcium carbonate or limestone CaCO3, Carbon dioxide or CO2, Carbon monoxide or CO, ethane, Carbon Tetrafluoride CF4, ammonium bicarbonate, Iron pentacarbonyl, carbon disulphide, and Silver oxalate. Diamond is the hardest form of carbon.

The world of carbon and its compounds is diversified and vast. You need to have a thorough understanding of the properties and atomic structures of the element and its compounds. For better understanding and enhanced learning in an animated environment, try MSVgo, an advanced learning app that makes things easy and simple to understand.  

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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