Syllabus covered in the MSVgo app

Download MSVgo app now!

Chapter 20 – Basic metallurgical processes

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Things made of metals are not found naturally in that chiseled shape and size. They are found as raw ores that are later purified, and pure metals are extracted from basic metallurgical processes. This branch of science is called metallurgy, and we are going to look more into its details.

Metallurgy is the field of study of metals (ferrous and non-ferrous both), their extraction, processing, properties, application & further understanding of metals’ different behavior under varying conditions. Also, alloys come under the field of metallurgy. Alloy is a solid solution of one or more metals with one or more non-metals having metallic properties. Metallurgy is known to humankind for a very long time for thousands of years. Improvement of metallurgy will improve the human race because most things are made of alloys, not metals. People have this misconception and use the term metal more often, but the word alloy should be used because pure metals do not have the required mechanical properties to be used as any building materials.

Ores are found in natural abundance and contain our desired minerals along with impurities. It is important to remove these impurities from the ores to obtain the high-grade metals that we will use to cast different items. These impurities are called gangue and are usually removed by the various purification processes. The common flow of metal extraction from ores are as follows:

  • The concentration of the ores
  • Isolating the metal from its concentrated ore
  • Purification of metal

We’ll discuss these steps in detail.

The concentration of ores:

Concentration is when we remove the unwanted materials like sand, dust, etc., from the ores, so we get concentrated ore full of our required metals. It is also called dressing or benefaction. First, the physical and chemical properties of gangue and the metals are accessed. A suitable process is then used. Before going for concentration, the ores go through crushing and grinding to make the small size ores.

Different methods of concentration:

  • Hydrolytic Method:

In this type of separation, the fundamental property of their specific gravities is used. The difference in the gravity of the gangue and the metal is used as the separation mechanism. In this gravity separation method, an upward stream of running water is used to wash away the lighter particles. And the heavier particles are found at the bottom.

  • Magnetic Separation:

In this method, the magnetic properties of the ores or gangue are used to separate them. A roller made of magnetic wheels is used to attract the magnetic particles in a different container. In contrast, the non-magnetic compounds are gone in a different container.

  • Froth Floatation

This method is extensively used to remove gangue from sulfide ores. In this method, the crushed ore is mixed with water to form a suspension. Froth stabilizers and collectors are added to the suspension. Collectors increase the unwettable quality of the mineral particles, and froth stabilizers make the froth stable. Oils make the mineral particles wet, while water soaks the gangue. A rotating paddle andair stirs the mixture in the process. Consequently, froth carrying the mineral particles is formed. The light froth is skimmed off and then dried for the recovery of the mineral particles.

It is likely to separate two sulphide ores by adjusting the proportion of oil to water or using ‘depressants’. In case of an ore containing ZnS & PbS, the depressant used is sodium cyanide. It selectively prevents zinc sulfide from coming to the froth but allows lead sulfide to come with the froth.

  • Leaching: This process is done when the ore is soluble in some suitable solvent.

Extraction of Metals from Ores:

For extraction, various methods are used. We will study the roasting and calcination methods.

  • Roasting: In this process, the ore is warmed in a continuous air supply in the furnace at any temperature lower than their melting point.

Eg: 2ZnS + 3O2 → 2ZnO + 2SO2

  • Calcination: Calcination involves heating when the volatile matter escapes leaving behind the metal oxide. E.g.:

Fe2O3.xH2O(s)-à Fe2O3 (s) + xH2O(g)

ZnCO3 (s) -à ZnO(s) + CO2 (g)

Basic metallurgical processes in an important part of class 10th NCERT syllabus: We learn about the various ways employed to extract any pure metal from their naturally occurring ores. The ores are found with impurities called gangue, which needs to be separated before their use. Various methods of concentration, extraction, and purification are used to treat these ores.

  1. What are the steps involved in the metallurgical process?

The primary steps involved in any metallurgical process are;

  • The concentration of ores
  • Isolation of the metal from
  • Purification of metal
  1. What are the types of metallurgy?

The metallurgy is broadly divided into two parts.

  • Physical metallurgy
  • Chemical metallurgy
  1. What are the basic metallurgical processes Class 10?

The basic metallurgical processes are:

  • Concentration of ore
  • Isolation of the metal
  • Purification of metal
  1. How is metallurgy used today?

They form the backbone of modern aircraft and carriers, automobiles and engines, trains, ships & endless recreational vehicles; buildings; implantable devices; cutlery and cookware; coins and jewellery; firearms; and musical instruments.

  1. What are metallurgical properties?

The basic metallurgical properties that we should be concerned about upon extraction are as follows.

  • Metal composition
  • Effects of metal composition on metal strength
  • Microscopic structures in metals and how they influence metal strength
  • Metallurgical changes that occur in metals during cold working and heat treating

You can learn more about the basic metallurgical processes by checking on the explanatory videos with some real life examples on the MSVgo app.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
Please switch to portrait mode
for the best experience.
Click to open Popup